User:Roger A. Lohmann/sandbox
"There isn't anything fun to do. Let's go play in the sandbox."
- Anon. (Age 8)
Citizendium Entry Redraft
The following is an initial draft reworking and slimming of https://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Citizendium. Before making any changes on that page, I thought I would try out some ideas here. The main focus of this rewrite is to recast the existing page as a recap of CZ's very legit. history.
From its start more than 15 years ago, the Citizendium has been an evolving concept and an unfolding project. It is currently undergoing another of several fundamental evolutionary stages in its history.
Evolution of the Citizendium
The Citizendium (si-tih-ZEN-dee-um, "a citizens' compendium") began as a wiki-based free encyclopedia project founded in 2007 by Larry Sanger, who also co-founded Wikipedia. It began at a time when several aspects of the Wikipedia model were matters of great controversy and most educators were actively discouraging ANY reliance on Wikipedia as a legitimate reference. The Citizendium allowed users to write and edit articles on many subjects, but required them to register and edit under their real, verified names. From its earliest months, the Citizendium has a policy document which set out members' rights and responsibilities.
The project aimed to improve on the Wikipedia model by providing reliable and high-quality content, and its content was first envisioned as a complete "fork" of the English language Wikipedia. However, the project abandoned that idea prior its public launch and elected instead to focus on developing its own original articles, though it always allowed material from other wikis to be used with attribution. Citizendium's own articles are released under a Creative Commons license that allows acknowledged duplication.
Another of the major departures from the Wikipedia model was the distinction between authors and editors and the development of an extensive editorial approval process that produced a relatively smaller number of "citable" articles approved by expert editors. Another departure was the development of Eduzendium, a project aimed explicitly
Citizendium was introduced as a "beta" (in development) project on March 25, 2007. After project members voted for a new Charter in September 2010, the "beta" tag was dropped in 2011. The project currently has 17,328 articles in varying stages of development, of which 154 are approved.
- 1 Citizendium Entry Redraft
- 2 Other Article Ideas, Fragments, etc
- 3 Origins of The Modern House
- 4 Major Contributors to Third Sector Studies
- 5 Jon Van Til
- 6 Other Article Stubs
The Citizendium has always been run according to a set of policies. The community itself, through consensus and discussion, is responsible for shaping the content of articles, as well as funding, appointments, and other administrative matters. Members may be elected or appointed to represent the project, make interim decisions and mediate disputes.
Members of the project are called "Citizens". They are further divided into "Authors", who are regular project members, and "Editors", who are recognized experts with the power to approve versions of articles and take content-related decisions in their subject fields. All Editors are also Authors, in that they can contribute as non-experts to any other articles. Other roles include: the technical staff, who maintain the software and servers of the wiki; the Moderator Group, which monitors behavior and maintains order in discussions; and the Treasurer, who administers the project's finances. Other positions may be created as necessary, such as a temporary Election Committee to run ballots. All Citizens are entitled to one vote in any election.
Origin of Citizendium
Larry Sanger, co-founder of Wikipedia, former Editor-in-Chief of Nupedia, and consultant to other web-encyclopedia projects such as the Encyclopedia of Earth, announced the concept for Citizendium on September 15, 2006 at Berlin's Wizards of OS 4 conference. The project moved on to a pilot phase in October, and formally launched on March 25, 2007.
Like Wikipedia, Citizendium began as a project to prepare an encyclopedia-like compendium through the collaborative writing approach known as 'wiki'.
Citizendium was founded on the following organizational principles that, for the most part, distinguish it from Wikipedia. These principles are maintained by the project's policies, which superseded the previous Charter in November 2016. The Charter in turn replaced the original 'Statement of Fundamental Policies' in 2010.
The policy document comprises the only binding set of rules on the project; previous rules have the status of guidance only.
A Collaboration of Citizens (Peers)
The original Citizendium was an open wiki: the public was invited to participate and edit most pages. Even then anonymous edits were not allowed, but in principle registered citizens could edit most pages. However, Citizendium has always required that all contributors edit under their real name, as this is thought to reduced vandalism, encourage a civil atmosphere, and help readers to judge how accurate an article may be. Any applicant must not only declare that the name they have submitted is their own, but must submit evidence that verifies this. Common verification methods include use of a non-free e-mail address, such as one used at an educational institution or company, or the submission of scanned identity documents such as a driver's license (information other than the applicant's name may be blacked out). Minors are asked to provide less personal information, while applicants seeking to become Editors are required to provide more extensive evidence of their qualifications or experience. All contributors must also maintain a public biography about themselves, to give readers some idea of the knowledge or abilities the Citizen has brought to their edits.
On Wikipedia and other projects, an "editor" is any user who can edit pages. On Citizendium, however, an "Editor" was a recognised expert in one or more fields. Editors are also "Authors", i.e. regular contributors to the project, but they were also able to make final decisions on content in their field(s) of expertise, and may also approve versions of articles as "citable", i.e. of reasonably good quality.
Founding Editor-in-Chief Larry Sanger promoted the shift to expertise, saying: "people who know a great deal about a subject, who are recognized by various societal mechanisms for that knowledge, can add a great of value to Web 2.0 projects, if they are given special roles that recognize their expertise." Using a metaphor from Eric S. Raymond's story about The Cathedral and the Bazaar, Sanger suggested that we "Think of editors as the village elders wandering the bazaar and occasionally dispensing advice and reining in the wayward. Their presence is merely a moderating, civilizing influence. They don't stop the bazaar from being a bazaar."
In the earlier rendition, an Editor could declare a version of an article essentially complete and of reasonably good quality. A copy of this approved version was then made available, locked to further editing, on a subpage of the main article. The article itself remains freely editable and can later be re-approved and replace the citable version. That process has not been set aside. Henceforth, no additional articles will be certified as citable.
Article inclusion policy
Citizendium stlll has no equivalent of the Wikipedia "notability" policy, so articles on subjects which many readers might consider obscure are acceptable. Instead, the project has an article inclusion policy which sets out the reasons under which a page may be deleted or archived on content grounds. These grounds include: significant weaknesses in the material; lack of importance to the project; little chance of the material being improved due to lack of interest.
- The Citizendium's Statement of Fundamental Policies. Accessed September 6, 2007.
- List of and links to Citable Articles.
- Correspondence on the Etymology of Wiki (November 2003). Retrieved on 09-05-2007.
- Sanger (2006) Why Make Room for Experts in Web 2.0 Keynote delivered at SDForum, San Jose, California, Oct. 24, 2006, retrieved from http://www.citizendium.org/roomforexperts.html on May 7, 2007.
- Sanger (2006) The Citizendium FAQ, retrieved from http://www.citizendium.org/faq.html#editors on May 7, 2007.
(The draft rewrite of this page ends here.
Other Article Ideas, Fragments, etc
Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action
The Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action (ARNOVA) was established in 1989 in a re-organization and broadening of the mission of the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars. The association has more than 1,000 members from more than two dozen disciplines and professions and is the sponsor of the peer-reviewed academic journal Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. The association headquarters are in Indianapolis, Indiana on the campus of IUPUI.
Association of Voluntary Action Scholars
The Association of Voluntary Action Scholars was established in 1972 by David Horton Smith and a number of colleagues. The Journal of Voluntary Action Research (1973-1988) was the official journal of the association.
After the number of drive-in theaters had shrunk from over 4,000 to under 400, attendance at drive-ins rose dramatically during the Covid19 pandemic.
"Modern House" refers to a residential dwelling or structure incorporating some or all of a number of "modern" features, including any or all of the following incorporated into the original design and construction:
- Electrical wiring and outlets
- internet connectivity/local area networks
- Small and large appliances
- Indoor plumbing, particularly running water and sewage service for the removal of human and household wastes
- Piped in 'natural gas' for cooking or heating
- Central heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)
- Modern kitchen facilities such as electric or gas stoves for cooking, ovens, refrigeration and freezers for food storage
- Garages or carports designed for automobiles
- "Open plan" design features, such as:
- - Absence of walls between functional areas
- - Curtain (non-load bearing) walls
- - Archways, pass throughs and counters
- - More and larger windows and glass expanses (including window walls)
- - "Family rooms", dens or recreation rooms
Modern houses also use new or innovative building materials including:
- Plywood and various processed (kiln-dried, chemically treated, pre-stressed, et. al.) wood products
- Plastics and synthetic materials for pipes, counters, insulation and waterproofing foundations and many other features
- Wall board rather than lathe and plaster walls
- Latex paints
Modern houses also tend to use innovative construction techniques including:
- Flat pitched roofs with wider overhangs
- Cantilevered porches
- Single-story designs emphasizing horizontal
- Eight foot to three meter ceiling heights rather than higher (12 foot to 4 meter) ceilings
To incorporate or retrofit any of these modern features into an older house (e.g., to bring running water, indoor plumbing, or electricity into an older farm house) is frequently referred to as "modernizing" it.
Individual modern houses may also be part of larger multi-house complexes built simultaneously, concurrently or sequentially, known as estates, tracts, developments, suburbs, or subdivisions. Sometimes such developments are derisively called "mass produced" housing.
Modern houses also tend to be characterized by the absence of certain features such as:
- Carriage houses or barns for horses
- Hitching posts
- Porte corcheres
- Separate rooms, wings or entire floors for "live in" servants or employees
- Parlors and specialized rooms for "receiving" guests
Origins of The Modern House
Architecturally, the international origins of the modern house can be traced to a variety of influences, notably two architects the American Frank Lloyd Wright and the French architect Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, better known as Le Corbusier and a host of less celebrated architects of the Bauhaus, Prairie School, and International Style
Major Contributors to Third Sector Studies
- Helmut Anheier: Add brief definition or description
- Edith Archambault: Add brief definition or description
- David Billis: Add brief definition or description
- Thomasina Borkman: Add brief definition or description
- L. David Brown: Add brief definition or description
- Dwight Burlingame: Add brief definition or description
- Adelbert Evers: Add brief definition or description
- Peter Dobkin Hall: Add brief definition or description
- David Hammack: Add brief definition or description
- Margaret Harris: Add brief definition or description
- Gabor Hegyesi: Add brief definition or description
- Robert D. Herman: Add brief definition or description
- Ralph Kramer: Add brief definition or description
- Vic Murray: Add brief definition or description
- John McNutt: Add brief definition or description
- Felice Davidson Perlmutter: Add brief definition or description
- Jack Quarter: Add brief definition or description
- Michael O'Neill: Add brief definition or description
- Susan Ostrander: Add brief definition or description
- Mark Rosenman: Add brief definition or description
- Judith Saidel: Add brief definition or description
- Lester Salamon: Add brief definition or description
- Harold Saunders: Add brief definition or description
- Helmut Schmidt: Add brief definition or description
- David Horton Smith: Add brief definition or description
- John Palmer Smith: Add brief definition or description
- Darwin Stapleton: Add brief definition or description
- Rich Sundeen: Add brief definition or description
- Rajesh Tandon: Add brief definition or description
- Marilyn Taylor: Add brief definition or description
- Gene Temple: Add brief definition or description
- Jon Van Til: Jon Van Til is one of the pioneers in nonprofit organization research and education and the third sector, with particular interests in voluntary action, civil society and theories of the third sector.
- Antonin Wagner: Add brief definition or description
- Arthur Williamson: Add brief definition or description
- Dennis Young: Add brief definition or description
Jon Van Til
Jon Van Til is one of the pioneers in nonprofit organization research and education and the third sector, with particular interests in voluntary action, civil society and theories of the third sector. Dr. Van Til is Professor Emeritus of Urban Studies and Community Planning at Rutgers University, Camden.
He was born in 1939 in Columbus OH to Professor William Van Til and Beatrice (Blaha) Van Til. He is married to Agnes Kover-Van Til; and has two children from an earlier marriage: Ross Van Til of Louisville, Colorado and Claire Van Til of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Van Til received a BA (High Honors; Phi Beta Kappa) from Swarthmore College in Political Science in 1961 and an MA in Sociology from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill in 1963. He earned a Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of California, Berkeley in 1970. His dissertation title is “Becoming Participants: Dynamics of Access Among the Welfare Poor”. (Robert Blauner, advisor)
His recent writings on social movements in Hungary are reported in two co-edited books and in contributed articles in the Huffington Post. Van Til divides his time between homes in Seelyville, Indiana and Budapest. He is married to Agnes Kover, the Hungarian human rights lawyer and sociologist.
Van Til is the past director of the Pennsylvania Law and Justice Institute (1972–1974), and served as Editor-in-Chief of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly from 1989-1992 (formerly the Journal of Voluntary Action Research from 1978 through 1989. He was twice elected President of the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars, and is the founding Board Chair of the Center for Nonprofit Corporations (Trenton, New Jersey). Van Til has also served as a Trustee of the George H. Gallup International Institute. Among the national clients of Van Til's consulting in the area of voluntary and nonprofit action have been the National Service Secretariat, the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, Health Visions Inc., the University of Colorado, the University of Pennsylvania, and the United Way of Central Indiana.
In 1991 he was recognized as "Creative Teacher of the Year" at Rutgers for developing his campus' program in Citizenship and Service Education. In 1994, he received the Career Award for Distinguished Research and Service from the Association for Research in Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action.
Van Til was named Fulbright Distinguished Professor at the University of Ulster during the Spring term, 2004, serving in the Magee College’s INCORE and Centre for Voluntary Action Studies. In the academic year 2005–6 he served as Fulbright Senior Specialist at INCORE.
Van Til served as Fulbright Specialist to Hungary's ELTE University for the academic year 2010–11, and at the Budapest University of Jewish Studies in 2014. He continues at that university at present, serving as visiting senior scholar and an active pracademic in the Budapest community. He also serves as senior visiting scholar at the Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy.
Van Til also served as President of the Philadelphia/Delaware Valley Chapter of the Fulbright Association, and as Anna Deane Carlson Distinguished Visiting Chair in Social Science at West Virginia University from 2003–05. His biography has been included in Who's Who in America after 2006.
His twelve books include Van Til, Jon (2008). Breaching Derry's Walls. Growing Civil Society (2008, 2000), Mapping the Third Sector: Voluntarism in a Changing Social Economy; (1988), and Living With Energy Shortfall (1982).
The Hungarian Patient co-edited with Peter Krasztev. Budapest and New York: Central European University Press. 2015.
Tarka Ellenallas. (The Colors Revolution), co-edited with Peter Krasztev. Budapest: Napvilag Kiadonal, 2013.
Resolving Community Conflicts and Problems: Public Deliberation and Sustained Dialogue. Columbia University Press, 2011 (co-edited with Roger A. Lohmann).
Gabor Hegyesi ’60—A Festschrift (co-edited with Andras Kelen). Budapest College of Management Press, 2008
Nonprofit Boards of Directors. co-edited with Robert Herman (Transaction Press, 1988)
Shifting the Debate: Public/Private Sector Relations in the Modern Welfare State. co-edited with Susan Ostrander and Stuart Langton (Transaction Press, 1987)
Leaders and Followers: Challenges for the Future., co-edited with Trudy Heller and Louis Zurcher (JAI Press, 1986.)
International Perspectives on Voluntary Action Research, co-edited with David Horton Smith. (University Press of America, 1982).
Encyclopedia and major handbook articles
“Grassroots Social Movements and the Shaping of History”, with Gabor Hegyesi and Jennifer Eschweiler. Ch. 23 in Ram Cnaan and Carl Milofsky, eds., Handbook of Community Movements and Local Organizations. New York: Springer. pp. 362–377. 2006.
"Civil Society", with Timothy Peterson. In Philanthropy in America: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia, Dwight F. Burlingame, Editor. ABC-Clio. 2004.
"Utopian Thought in Philanthropy." In Philanthropy in America: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia, Dwight F. Burlingame, Editor. ABC-Clio.
"Nonprofit Organizations and Social Institutions." Ch. 2 in Robert Herman, ed., The Jossey-Bass Handbook of Nonprofit Leadership and Management. second edition (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass). pp. 39–62.2002
"Voluntary Associations", with Arthur P. Williamson. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. Elsevier Science Ltd. 2001
“Change Leadership or Change Management?” With David A. Pettrone Swalve. Ch. 3 in Tracy Daniel Connors, ed., The Nonprofit Management Handbook: Management. Third edition (New York: Wiley). pp. 65–83.
"Metaphors and Visions for the Voluntary Sector." Ch. 1 in Tracy Daniel Connors, ed., The Volunteer Management Handbook. (New York: Wiley). 1995. pp. 3–11.
"National Service: Twenty Questions and Some Answers." Ch. 18 in Tracy Daniel Connors, ed., The Volunteer Management Handbook. (New York: Wiley). pp. 361–378. 1994
"Nonprofit Organizations and Social Institutions." Ch. 2 in Robert Herman, ed., The Jossey-Bass Handbook of Nonprofit Leadership and Management. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass). pp. 44–64.
Who's Who in America. 2015. 69th Edition (pub. 2014)
Who's Who in American Education - 2004-2005, 6th Edition (pub. 2003)
Who's Who in the East - 1989-1990, 22nd Edition (pub. 1988)
Other Article Stubs
Winfried Georg Sebald (usually identified as W.G. Sebald) was born May 18, 1944 in Wertach, Allegau, Germany and died December 14, 2001 in Norfolk, England.
The following list are for articles that need to be written by someone:
List of Communitarians
(One of the things that unites nearly all communitarians is that they deny that's what they are! The label is attributed by others).
List of Neoconservatives
- William Kristol: American political scientist, founder of the Weekly Standard, and U.S. Republican Party strategist; board member of Foreign Policy Initiative and Keep America Safe; chief of staff to Vice President Dan Quayle and U.S. Secretary of Education William Bennett; son of Irving Kristol, dean of neoconservatism; contributor to The Weekly Standard and Washington Post; expert list, Middle East Forum
- Irving Kristol: (1920-2009) Founder of American neoconservatism; senior fellow emeritus of the American Enterprise Institute; founder and publisher, National Interest (magazine)
- Paul Wolfowitz: An American political scientist and policy-level foreign affairs official, of a neoconservative ideology; resident American Enterprise Institute and on International Security Advisory Board; Deputy Secretary of Defense in the George W. Bush Administration; advisor, Project for the New American Century
- L. Paul Bremer: Retired American Foreign Service Officer and counterterrorism specialist who was Presidential Envoy to Iraq in 2003-2004, running the Coalition Provisional Authority
- Charles Krauthammer: Conservative syndicated columnist, most associated with the Washingon Post; non-practicing psychiatrist; advisor, Foundation for Defense of Democracies; "favorite columnist", American Conservative Union
- Francis Fukuyama: Professor at the School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, author and government adviser on global development and foreign policy; in and out of neoconservatism; adjunct fellow, Hudson Institute; director, National Endowment for Democracy, New America Foundation
- Donald Kagan: Historian and classics professor at Yale University, expert on the Peloponnesian War; Trustee emeritus, Hudson Institute; father of Robert Kagan and Frederick Kagan; Project for the New American Century
- Robert Kagan: U.S. foreign policy analyst and influencer; cofounder of the new Foreign Policy Initiative; senior associate, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, contributing editor at the New Republic and Weekly Standard, columnist, Washington Post; member, Council on Foreign Relations; fellow in American diplomatic history at American University; Aspen Strategy Group, Aspen Institute; son of Donald Kagan and brother of Frederick Kagan
- Frederick Kagan: A Resident Scholar at the American Enterprise Institute and a member of the Strategic Assessments Group to GEN Stanley McChrystal in Afghanistan; former professor of history at the United States Military Academy; involved in planning the "Surge" in the Iraq War; academic adviser, Center for Security Policy; son of Donald Kagan and brother of Robert Kagan, prominent neoconservatives; spouse of Kimberly Kagan
- Kimberly Kagan: Military historian, president of the Institute for the Study of War; member of the Strategic Assessment Group for GEN Stanley McChrystal in developing new doctrine for the Afghanistan War (2001-); adviser to Multi-National Force-Iraq; spouse of Frederick Kagan
- John Podhoretz: Add brief definition or description
- Bret Stephens: Add brief definition or description
- Midge Decter: Neoconservative journalist; Trustee of the Heritage Foundation; Jamestown Foundation Advisory Board; Board of Advisors, Foreign Policy Research Institute; Committee on the Present Danger; Accuracy in Media National Advisory Board; spouse of Norman Podhoretz; advisor, Project for the New American Century
- Richard Perle: An American political scientist who has been an important advisor and facilitator, rather than executive, for U.S. foreign policy and is associated with neoconservatism
- Norman Podhoretz: Editor-at-large and formerly editor, Commentary (magazine), a leading journal of neoconservatism; member, Committee on the Present Danger; advisor, Project for the New American Century; adjunct fellow, Hudson Institute; spouse of Midge Decter
- John Podhoretz: Add brief definition or description
- Elliott Abrams: Neoconservative, convicted and pardoned on activities related to the Iran-Contra affair; National Security Council staff during George W. Bush Administration; senior fellow, Council on Foreign Relations; spouse of Rachel Abrams and son-in-law of Midge Decter and Norman Podhoretz; Project for the New American Century; Senior Fellow, Hudson Institute 1990-1996
- Rachel Abrams: neoconversative writer and blogger; member of the board, Emergency Committee for Israel; spouse of Elliott Abrams and daughter of Norman Podhoretz and Midge Decter; contributor, Weekly Standard
- Patrick Buchanan: U.S. paleoconservative journalist and political candidate; early assistant to Richard Nixon and speechwriter for Ronald Reagan
- Douglas Feith: An American strategic analyst, associated with neoconservatism, who held posts including Under Secretary of Defense for Policy in 2001-2005, when he advised Donald Rumsfeld on the Iraq War; fellow of the Hudson Institute
- Scooter Libby: Add brief definition or description
- Clifford May: President, Foundation for Defense of Democracies; Expert panel, Iraq Study Group
- Max Boot: Add brief definition or description
- Randy Scheunemann: Foreign policy and national security analyst; neoconservative and U.S. Republican Party consultant who operates a communications firm
- Gary Schmitt: Resident Scholar and Director of Advanced Strategic Studies, American Enterprise Institute; Executive Director, Project for the New American Century (1997-2005}; Adjunct Professor, School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University (1996-97); Fellow, The National Interest, Brookings Institution, and National Strategy Information Center, (1988-96}; Executive Director, President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (1984-88}; ; minority staff (1981-1982) director (1982-1984) Senate Select Committee on Intelligence
- Danielle Pletka: Vice President, Foreign and Defense Policy Studies, of the American Enterprise Institute, and an advocate of a forward-deployed and interventionist US position; member, Committee on the Present Danger
- Jamie Fly: Executive Director, Foreign Policy Initiative; Director for Counterproliferation Strategy at the National Security Council at the National Security Council (2008-2009) and Assistant for Transnational Threats Policy in the Office of the U.S. Secretary of Defense (2005-2008); Republican National Committee 2004 campaign in Ohio and on the 2005 Presidential Inaugural Committee] Research Associate at the Council on Foreign Relations (2002-2004
- Justin Väisse: Add brief definition or description
- Daniel Patrick Moynihan: Add brief definition or description
- Jeane Kirkpatrick: (1926-2006) First woman to serve as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations in the Ronald Reagan Administration; President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (1985-1990) and the Defense Policy Review Board (1985-1993); chaired the Secretary of Defense Commission on Fail Safe and Risk Reduction of the Nuclear Command and Control System (1992); senior fellow of the American Enterprise Institute
- John Bolton: American attorney and diplomat, associated with neoconservatism; Senior Fellow, American Enterprise Institute (2007-) and Senior Vice President for Public Policy Research (1997-2001); U.S. permanent representative to the United Nations 2005-2006; not confirmed as Ambassador; Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security, 2001-2005
- David Frum: An American conservative author and commentator, who advocates renewal of the conservative movement and U.S. Republican Party, and has written in favor of an aggressive policy against terror, including preventive war; fired in March 2010 as Resident Fellow at the American Enterprise Institute
- Joshua Muravchik: Board of Trustees, Freedom House; neoconservative from Democratic Party and Socialist background; member, Committee for the Present Danger; Member, Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs; Adjunct Scholar, Washington Institute for Near East Policy; former resident scholar, American Enterprise Institute; former president, Young People’s Socialist League
- Daniel Senor: Now a commentator on the Middle East and investment capital adviser, a Republican who was a foreign policy and communications adviser in the Senate, Deputy Press Secretary in the George W. Bush Administration and spokesman for the Coalition Provisional Authority; adjunct fellow for the Council on Foreign Relations
- Kimberly Kessler: (see Kimberly Kagan.)
- Liz Cheney: neoconservative attorney; daughter of Dick Cheney and assisting him with his memoirs; founding board member of Keep America Safe and Chairman of the Board of the Institute for the Study of War; State Department official for the Middle East 2002-2006
- Dick Cheney: (1941–) U.S. Vice President in the George W. Bush Administration and advocate of neoconservatism and unitary Presidential authority; currently a political commentator; U.S. Secretary of Defense in the George H. W. Bush Administration; spouse of Lynne Cheney; father of Liz Cheney
- : (1907-1908) A pioneering social investigation of urban social problems in the Progressive Era funded by the Russell Sage Foundation and conducted in the "steel city" of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
- : Large museum located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan in 1869. The museum consists of 25 connected buildings and 46 exhibition halls for display of its large collection of diaramas, artifacts and scientific evidence of natural history.
- John James Audubon: West Indian-American illustrator and animalier, known for his illustrations of birds. The father of wildlife artist James Woodhouse Audubon
- : Animal activist, eccentric, and creator of the A.S.P.C.A., the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty against Animals
- : Popular Irish-American author of action-adventure books (1818-1883) born in County Down in northern Ireland, "Captain" Reid was a drinking companion of Edgar Allen Poe before fighting in the Mexican-American War of 1846 and was wounded at the Battle of Chapultepec. His books on the American West were popular with young boys in Europe and elsewhere.
- : An uncle of President Theodore Roosevelt who was a pioneering ichthyologist, crusader against over-fishing and eccentric.
- John Burroughs: Add brief definition or description
- Frank Chapman: Add brief definition or description
- George Bird Grinnell: Add brief definition or description
- National Wildlife Refuge System: Add brief definition or description
- U.S. Forest Service: Add brief definition or description
- Hetch Hetchy Valley: A glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in California flooded in the 1920s by O'Shaughnessy Dam on the Tuolumne River, forming the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, part of the water supply for the city of San Francisco, California. Damming the Tuolumne and flooding the valley was protested by John Muir and the Sierra Club
- : Mountain valley on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada range in Mariposa County, California. The valley is the point of entry and a major attraction of Yosemite National Park.
- Yosemite National Park: A national park, established in 1890, located in the Yosemite Valley in the Sierra Nevada range of central California.
- : A grove of giant sequoia trees located in the southernmost part of Yosemite National Park near Wawona, California.
- Street: Add brief definition or description
- : An administrative district in France and most of its former colonies. The City of Paris is divided into twenty arrondissements municipaux each of which have their own character and which constitute distinct spatial, cultural, social and political districts.
- : American literary critic, author, and teacher (born Lionel Mordecai Trilling), 1905-1975. A member of the New York Intellectuals and contributor to the Partisan Review.
- : American sociologist, lawyer, professor and public intellectual. 1909-2002. His 1950 book, The Lonely Crowd distinguished inner-directed and outer-directed personalities.
- : A name taken by several different publications representing the radical left, libertarian and other outlooks.
- Commentary: Add brief definition or description
- : A Jewish leftist publication that was during the 1930s edited by Herbert Solow and Elliott E. Cohen.
- International Herald Tribune: A widely read and influential English-language daily newspaper currently owned by the The New York Times Company and printed at three dozen sites throughout the world and sold in more than 180 countries.
- Nicholas Murray Butler: (1862–1947) American philosopher, diplomat, and educator who was president of Columbia University, president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and a recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.
- American Jewish Committee: Advocacy organization founded in 1906 to bring together all variants of American Jewry and defend the interests of Jews around the world.
- : English-language literary magazine founded in Paris in 1953 and currently based in New York City. It's original mission statement said it sought to publish "the good writers and good poets, the non-drumbeaters and non-axe grinders. So long as they're good."
- : Performing arts presentations combining song, dance, and [[orchesta]l music with spoken dialogue. Types of musical theater include, among others, Broadway musicals, revues, musical comedy, operetta, and light opera.
|Annie Get Your Gun||Irving Berlin||Annie Oakley, "Buffalo Bill" Cody||1946||1950|
|Aspects of Love||Andrew Lloyd Webber||1948||1948||1948|
|Cats||Andrew Lloyd Webber||1900||1900|
|Evita||Andrew Lloyd Webber||Argentina||1900|
|Meet Me In St. Louis||Irving Brecker/Fred Finklehoffe||Worlds Fair of 1904||The Smith family||1944|
|My Fair Lady||Edwardian London||1900|
|New York, New York||1900||1900|
|Oklahoma||Richard Rodgers/Oscar Hammerstein Jr.||Oklahoma Territory||Curley McLain, Laurey Williams||1941||1955|
|Private Lives||Noël Coward||London||1930|
|Phantom of the Opera||Andrew Lloyd Webber||Paris Opera, Paris Sewer||1941||1943|
|The Sound of Music||Austria||1900||1900|
|South Pacific||Richard Rodgers/Oscar Hammerstein Jr.||WWII in Pacific||1949||1958|
|State Fair||Richard Rodgers/Oscar Hammerstein Jr.||Iowa State Fair||The Frake family||1996||1945|
|West Side Story||Leonard Bernstein||1900||1900|
|The King and I||Siam||1900|
|Guys and Dolls||Broadway||1900|
|London Calling||Noel Coward||London||Willy & George Craft||1923|
|Kiss Me Kate|
|A Chorus Line|
|No No Nanette|
|Jesus Christ, Superstar||Tom Rice/Andrew Lloyd Webber|
|No No Nanette|
|Porgy and Bess|
|On the Town|
- Follies : Add brief definition or description
- F : Add brief definition or description
- Sound of Music : Add brief definition or description
- Bye Bye, Birdie : Add brief definition or description
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|1642-1651||English Civil War: Scarborough sides with the Royalists|
|March 1643||Castle garrison led by Sir Hugh Cholmley; briefly loses the Castle to his cousin, Captain Browne Bushell|
|August 1644||Parliamentary forces reach Scarborough following Royalist defeat at Marston Moor and the fall of York; Cholmley stalls with surrender negotiations|
|18th February 1645||Capture of Scarborough's port; first siege of the Castle by Parliamentary forces begins|
|24th March 1645||Sir John Meldrum, leader of the Parliamentary forces, badly injured in clifftop fall; allows Royalist surprise attack and delays siege by six weeks|
|1st May 1645||Parliamentarians' Committee of Both Kingdoms orders that the Castle be taken at all costs|
|10th May 1645||Royalist counter-attack leads to Parlimentary retreat after three-day bombardment and collapse of the keep's west wall|
|11th May 1645||Heavy hand-to-hand fighting around the barbican; Parliamentarians take heavier casualties, Meldrum killed|
|25th July 1645||Castle garrison surrenders following five-month siege|
|27th July 1648||New castle garrison goes over to the Royalist side|
|19th December 1648||Second siege brings Castle back under Parliamentary control; later used as a prison|
(No workgroup is going to want to claim this!)