User:Roger A. Lohmann/sandbox

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"There isn't anything fun to do. Let's go play in the sandbox."

Anon. (Age 8)

Citizendium Entry Redraft

The following is an initial draft reworking and slimming of Before making any changes on that page, I thought I would try out some ideas here. The main focus of this rewrite is to recast the existing page as a recap of CZ's very legit. history.

From its start more than 15 years ago, the Citizendium has been an evolving concept and an unfolding project. It is currently undergoing another of several fundamental evolutionary stages in its history.

Evolution of the Citizendium

(CC) Screenshot: Citizendium
Citizendium home page in July 2016.

The Citizendium (si-tih-ZEN-dee-um, "a citizens' compendium") began as a wiki-based free encyclopedia project founded in 2007 by Larry Sanger, who also co-founded Wikipedia. It began at a time when several aspects of the Wikipedia model were matters of great controversy and most educators were actively discouraging ANY reliance on Wikipedia as a legitimate reference. The Citizendium allowed users to write and edit articles on many subjects, but required them to register and edit under their real, verified names. From its earliest months, the Citizendium has a policy document which set out members' rights and responsibilities.

The project aimed to improve on the Wikipedia model by providing reliable and high-quality content,[1] and its content was first envisioned as a complete "fork" of the English language Wikipedia. However, the project abandoned that idea prior its public launch and elected instead to focus on developing its own original articles, though it always allowed material from other wikis to be used with attribution. Citizendium's own articles are released under a Creative Commons license that allows acknowledged duplication.

Another of the major departures from the Wikipedia model was the distinction between authors and editors and the development of an extensive editorial approval process that produced a relatively smaller number of "citable" articles approved by expert editors. Another departure was the development of Eduzendium, a project aimed explicitly

Citizendium was introduced as a "beta" (in development) project on March 25, 2007. After project members voted for a new Charter in September 2010, the "beta" tag was dropped in 2011. The project currently has 17,987 articles in varying stages of development, of which 148 are approved.[2]


The Citizendium has always been run according to a set of policies. The community itself, through consensus and discussion, is responsible for shaping the content of articles, as well as funding, appointments, and other administrative matters. Members may be elected or appointed to represent the project, make interim decisions and mediate disputes.

Members of the project are called "Citizens". They are further divided into "Authors", who are regular project members, and "Editors", who are recognized experts with the power to approve versions of articles and take content-related decisions in their subject fields. All Editors are also Authors, in that they can contribute as non-experts to any other articles. Other roles include: the technical staff, who maintain the software and servers of the wiki; the Moderator Group, which monitors behavior and maintains order in discussions; and the Treasurer, who administers the project's finances. Other positions may be created as necessary, such as a temporary Election Committee to run ballots. All Citizens are entitled to one vote in any election.

Origin of Citizendium

Larry Sanger announced the Citizendium on September 15, 2006, at the Wizards of OS 4 conference in Berlin.

Larry Sanger, co-founder of Wikipedia, former Editor-in-Chief of Nupedia, and consultant to other web-encyclopedia projects such as the Encyclopedia of Earth, announced the concept for Citizendium on September 15, 2006 at Berlin's Wizards of OS 4 conference. The project moved on to a pilot phase in October, and formally launched on March 25, 2007.

Fundamental principles

Like Wikipedia, Citizendium began as a project to prepare an encyclopedia-like compendium through the collaborative writing approach known as 'wiki'.[3]

Citizendium was founded on the following organizational principles that, for the most part, distinguish it from Wikipedia. These principles are maintained by the project's policies, which superseded the previous Charter in November 2016. The Charter in turn replaced the original 'Statement of Fundamental Policies' in 2010.

The policy document comprises the only binding set of rules on the project; previous rules have the status of guidance only.

A Collaboration of Citizens (Peers)

The original Citizendium was an open wiki: the public was invited to participate and edit most pages. Even then anonymous edits were not allowed, but in principle registered citizens could edit most pages. However, Citizendium has always required that all contributors edit under their real name, as this is thought to reduced vandalism, encourage a civil atmosphere, and help readers to judge how accurate an article may be. Any applicant must not only declare that the name they have submitted is their own, but must submit evidence that verifies this. Common verification methods include use of a non-free e-mail address, such as one used at an educational institution or company, or the submission of scanned identity documents such as a driver's license (information other than the applicant's name may be blacked out). Minors are asked to provide less personal information, while applicants seeking to become Editors are required to provide more extensive evidence of their qualifications or experience. All contributors must also maintain a public biography about themselves, to give readers some idea of the knowledge or abilities the Citizen has brought to their edits.

Expert contribution

On Wikipedia and other projects, an "editor" is any user who can edit pages. On Citizendium, however, an "Editor" was a recognised expert in one or more fields. Editors are also "Authors", i.e. regular contributors to the project, but they were also able to make final decisions on content in their field(s) of expertise, and may also approve versions of articles as "citable", i.e. of reasonably good quality.

Founding Editor-in-Chief Larry Sanger promoted the shift to expertise, saying: "people who know a great deal about a subject, who are recognized by various societal mechanisms for that knowledge, can add a great of value to Web 2.0 projects, if they are given special roles that recognize their expertise."[4] Using a metaphor from Eric S. Raymond's story about The Cathedral and the Bazaar, Sanger suggested that we "Think of editors as the village elders wandering the bazaar and occasionally dispensing advice and reining in the wayward. Their presence is merely a moderating, civilizing influence. They don't stop the bazaar from being a bazaar."[5]

Citable articles

In the earlier rendition, an Editor could declare a version of an article essentially complete and of reasonably good quality. A copy of this approved version was then made available, locked to further editing, on a subpage of the main article. The article itself remains freely editable and can later be re-approved and replace the citable version. That process has not been set aside. Henceforth, no additional articles will be certified as citable.

Article inclusion policy

Citizendium stlll has no equivalent of the Wikipedia "notability" policy, so articles on subjects which many readers might consider obscure are acceptable. Instead, the project has an article inclusion policy which sets out the reasons under which a page may be deleted or archived on content grounds. These grounds include: significant weaknesses in the material; lack of importance to the project; little chance of the material being improved due to lack of interest.


  1. The Citizendium's Statement of Fundamental Policies. Accessed September 6, 2007.
  2. List of and links to Citable Articles.
  3. Correspondence on the Etymology of Wiki (November 2003). Retrieved on 09-05-2007.
  4. Sanger (2006) Why Make Room for Experts in Web 2.0 Keynote delivered at SDForum, San Jose, California, Oct. 24, 2006, retrieved from on May 7, 2007.
  5. Sanger (2006) The Citizendium FAQ, retrieved from on May 7, 2007.

(The draft rewrite of this page ends here.

Other Article Ideas, Fragments, etc


Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action

Template:Infobox Organization

The Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action (ARNOVA) was established in 1989 in a re-organization and broadening of the mission of the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars. The association has more than 1,000 members from more than two dozen disciplines and professions and is the sponsor of the peer-reviewed academic journal Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. The association headquarters are in Indianapolis, Indiana on the campus of IUPUI.



See Also


External Links

Association of Voluntary Action Scholars

The Association of Voluntary Action Scholars was established in 1972 by David Horton Smith and a number of colleagues. The Journal of Voluntary Action Research (1973-1988) was the official journal of the association.

Drive-In Theaters

After the number of drive-in theaters had shrunk from over 4,000 to under 400, attendance at drive-ins rose dramatically during the Covid19 pandemic.

Modern House

"Modern House" refers to a residential dwelling or structure incorporating some or all of a number of "modern" features, including any or all of the following incorporated into the original design and construction:

Electrical wiring and outlets
internet connectivity/local area networks
Small and large appliances
Indoor plumbing, particularly running water and sewage service for the removal of human and household wastes
Piped in 'natural gas' for cooking or heating
Central heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)
Modern kitchen facilities such as electric or gas stoves for cooking, ovens, refrigeration and freezers for food storage
Garages or carports designed for automobiles
"Open plan" design features, such as:
- Absence of walls between functional areas
- Curtain (non-load bearing) walls
- Archways, pass throughs and counters
- More and larger windows and glass expanses (including window walls)
- "Family rooms", dens or recreation rooms

Modern houses also use new or innovative building materials including:

Plywood and various processed (kiln-dried, chemically treated, pre-stressed, et. al.) wood products
Plastics and synthetic materials for pipes, counters, insulation and waterproofing foundations and many other features
Wall board rather than lathe and plaster walls
Latex paints

Modern houses also tend to use innovative construction techniques including:

Flat pitched roofs with wider overhangs
Cantilevered porches
Single-story designs emphasizing horizontal
Eight foot to three meter ceiling heights rather than higher (12 foot to 4 meter) ceilings

To incorporate or retrofit any of these modern features into an older house (e.g., to bring running water, indoor plumbing, or electricity into an older farm house) is frequently referred to as "modernizing" it.

Individual modern houses may also be part of larger multi-house complexes built simultaneously, concurrently or sequentially, known as estates, tracts, developments, suburbs, or subdivisions. Sometimes such developments are derisively called "mass produced" housing.

Modern houses also tend to be characterized by the absence of certain features such as:

Carriage houses or barns for horses
Hitching posts
Porte corcheres
Separate rooms, wings or entire floors for "live in" servants or employees
Parlors and specialized rooms for "receiving" guests

Origins of The Modern House

Architecturally, the international origins of the modern house can be traced to a variety of influences, notably two architects the American Frank Lloyd Wright and the French architect Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, better known as Le Corbusier and a host of less celebrated architects of the Bauhaus, Prairie School, and International Style

Major Contributors to Third Sector Studies

Jon Van Til

Jon Van Til is one of the pioneers in nonprofit organization research and education and the third sector, with particular interests in voluntary action, civil society and theories of the third sector. Dr. Van Til is Professor Emeritus of Urban Studies and Community Planning at Rutgers University, Camden.

He was born in 1939 in Columbus OH to Professor William Van Til and Beatrice (Blaha) Van Til. He is married to Agnes Kover-Van Til; and has two children from an earlier marriage: Ross Van Til of Louisville, Colorado and Claire Van Til of Philadelphia. Van Til received a BA (High Honors; Phi Beta Kappa) from Swarthmore College in Political Science in 1961 and an MA in Sociology from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill in 1963. He earned a Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of California, Berkeley in 1970. His dissertation title is “Becoming Participants: Dynamics of Access Among the Welfare Poor”. (Robert Blauner, advisor)

Recent Work

His recent writings on social movements in Hungary are reported in two co-edited books and in contributed articles in the Huffington Post. Van Til divides his time between homes in Seelyville, Indiana and Budapest. He is married to Agnes Kover, the Hungarian human rights lawyer and sociologist.

Van Til is the past director of the Pennsylvania Law and Justice Institute (1972–1974), and served as Editor-in-Chief of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly from 1989-1992 (formerly the Journal of Voluntary Action Research from 1978 through 1989. He was twice elected President of the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars, and is the founding Board Chair of the Center for Nonprofit Corporations (Trenton, New Jersey). Van Til has also served as a Trustee of the George H. Gallup International Institute. Among the national clients of Van Til's consulting in the area of voluntary and nonprofit action have been the National Service Secretariat, the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, Health Visions Inc., the University of Colorado, the University of Pennsylvania, and the United Way of Central Indiana.

In 1991 he was recognized as "Creative Teacher of the Year" at Rutgers for developing his campus' program in Citizenship and Service Education. In 1994, he received the Career Award for Distinguished Research and Service from the Association for Research in Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action.

Van Til was named Fulbright Distinguished Professor at the University of Ulster during the Spring term, 2004, serving in the Magee College’s INCORE and Centre for Voluntary Action Studies. In the academic year 2005–6 he served as Fulbright Senior Specialist at INCORE.

Van Til served as Fulbright Specialist to Hungary's ELTE University for the academic year 2010–11, and at the Budapest University of Jewish Studies in 2014. He continues at that university at present, serving as visiting senior scholar and an active pracademic in the Budapest community. He also serves as senior visiting scholar at the Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy.

Van Til also served as President of the Philadelphia/Delaware Valley Chapter of the Fulbright Association, and as Anna Deane Carlson Distinguished Visiting Chair in Social Science at West Virginia University from 2003–05. His biography has been included in Who's Who in America after 2006.



His twelve books include Van Til, Jon (2008). Breaching Derry's Walls. Growing Civil Society (2008, 2000), Mapping the Third Sector: Voluntarism in a Changing Social Economy; (1988), and Living With Energy Shortfall (1982).

Edited books

The Hungarian Patient co-edited with Peter Krasztev. Budapest and New York: Central European University Press. 2015.

Tarka Ellenallas. (The Colors Revolution), co-edited with Peter Krasztev. Budapest: Napvilag Kiadonal, 2013.

Resolving Community Conflicts and Problems: Public Deliberation and Sustained Dialogue. Columbia University Press, 2011 (co-edited with Roger A. Lohmann).

Gabor Hegyesi ’60—A Festschrift (co-edited with Andras Kelen). Budapest College of Management Press, 2008

Nonprofit Boards of Directors. co-edited with Robert Herman (Transaction Press, 1988)

Shifting the Debate: Public/Private Sector Relations in the Modern Welfare State. co-edited with Susan Ostrander and Stuart Langton (Transaction Press, 1987)

Leaders and Followers: Challenges for the Future., co-edited with Trudy Heller and Louis Zurcher (JAI Press, 1986.)

International Perspectives on Voluntary Action Research, co-edited with David Horton Smith. (University Press of America, 1982).

Encyclopedia and major handbook articles

“Grassroots Social Movements and the Shaping of History”, with Gabor Hegyesi and Jennifer Eschweiler. Ch. 23 in Ram Cnaan and Carl Milofsky, eds., Handbook of Community Movements and Local Organizations. New York: Springer. pp. 362–377. 2006.

"Civil Society", with Timothy Peterson. In Philanthropy in America: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia, Dwight F. Burlingame, Editor. ABC-Clio. 2004.

"Utopian Thought in Philanthropy." In Philanthropy in America: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia, Dwight F. Burlingame, Editor. ABC-Clio.

"Nonprofit Organizations and Social Institutions." Ch. 2 in Robert Herman, ed., The Jossey-Bass Handbook of Nonprofit Leadership and Management. second edition (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass). pp. 39–62.2002

"Voluntary Associations", with Arthur P. Williamson. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. Elsevier Science Ltd. 2001

“Change Leadership or Change Management?” With David A. Pettrone Swalve. Ch. 3 in Tracy Daniel Connors, ed., The Nonprofit Management Handbook: Management. Third edition (New York: Wiley). pp. 65–83.

"Metaphors and Visions for the Voluntary Sector." Ch. 1 in Tracy Daniel Connors, ed., The Volunteer Management Handbook. (New York: Wiley). 1995. pp. 3–11.

"National Service: Twenty Questions and Some Answers." Ch. 18 in Tracy Daniel Connors, ed., The Volunteer Management Handbook. (New York: Wiley). pp. 361–378. 1994

"Nonprofit Organizations and Social Institutions." Ch. 2 in Robert Herman, ed., The Jossey-Bass Handbook of Nonprofit Leadership and Management. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass). pp. 44–64.


Who's Who in America. 2015. 69th Edition (pub. 2014)

Who's Who in American Education - 2004-2005, 6th Edition (pub. 2003)

Who's Who in the East - 1989-1990, 22nd Edition (pub. 1988)

Other Article Stubs

W.G. Sebald

Winfried Georg Sebald (usually identified as W.G. Sebald) was born May 18, 1944 in Wertach, Allegau, Germany and died December 14, 2001 in Norfolk, England.

The following list are for articles that need to be written by someone:

List of Communitarians

(One of the things that unites nearly all communitarians is that they deny that's what they are! The label is attributed by others).

List of Neoconservatives

Needed Articles


Title Composer/Librettist Setting Main Characters Date
First Produced
Annie Get Your Gun Irving Berlin Annie Oakley, "Buffalo Bill" Cody 1946 1950
Aspects of Love Andrew Lloyd Webber 1948 1948 1948
Cats Andrew Lloyd Webber 1900 1900
Evita Andrew Lloyd Webber Argentina 1900
Meet Me In St. Louis Irving Brecker/Fred Finklehoffe Worlds Fair of 1904 The Smith family 1944
My Fair Lady Edwardian London 1900
New York, New York 1900 1900
Oklahoma Richard Rodgers/Oscar Hammerstein Jr. Oklahoma Territory Curley McLain, Laurey Williams 1941 1955
Pal Joey 1900
Private Lives Noël Coward London 1930
Phantom of the Opera Andrew Lloyd Webber Paris Opera, Paris Sewer 1941 1943
The Sound of Music Austria 1900 1900
South Pacific Richard Rodgers/Oscar Hammerstein Jr. WWII in Pacific 1949 1958
State Fair Richard Rodgers/Oscar Hammerstein Jr. Iowa State Fair The Frake family 1996 1945
West Side Story Leonard Bernstein 1900 1900
Wonderful Town NYC 1900 1900
Where’s Charley? 1900
The King and I Siam 1900
Guys and Dolls Broadway 1900
London Calling Noel Coward London Willy & George Craft 1923
Kiss Me Kate
A Chorus Line
No No Nanette
Jesus Christ, Superstar Tom Rice/Andrew Lloyd Webber
Max and
Gypsy Steven Sondheim 1971
Les Miserables
No No Nanette
Porgy and Bess
Starlight Express
Billy Elliot
Funny Girl
On the Town
42nd Street
Auntie Mame
The Wiz
Sunset Boulevard
Sweet Charity

Max and

Grey Gardens

Old Timeline

Date Event
1642-1651 English Civil War: Scarborough sides with the Royalists
March 1643 Castle garrison led by Sir Hugh Cholmley; briefly loses the Castle to his cousin, Captain Browne Bushell
August 1644 Parliamentary forces reach Scarborough following Royalist defeat at Marston Moor and the fall of York; Cholmley stalls with surrender negotiations
18th February 1645 Capture of Scarborough's port; first siege of the Castle by Parliamentary forces begins
24th March 1645 Sir John Meldrum, leader of the Parliamentary forces, badly injured in clifftop fall; allows Royalist surprise attack and delays siege by six weeks
1st May 1645 Parliamentarians' Committee of Both Kingdoms orders that the Castle be taken at all costs
10th May 1645 Royalist counter-attack leads to Parlimentary retreat after three-day bombardment and collapse of the keep's west wall
11th May 1645 Heavy hand-to-hand fighting around the barbican; Parliamentarians take heavier casualties, Meldrum killed
25th July 1645 Castle garrison surrenders following five-month siege
27th July 1648 New castle garrison goes over to the Royalist side
19th December 1648 Second siege brings Castle back under Parliamentary control; later used as a prison


(No workgroup is going to want to claim this!)