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- Adenine : A base incorporated into DNA and RNA and part of an energy carrier, as ATP, in metabolism.
- Anabolism : Biological processes that build larger molecules from smaller ones, and increase the size of bones, organs and muscles.
- Beta oxidation : The process by which fatty acids, in the form of Acyl-CoA molecules, are broken down in the mitochondria to generate Acetyl-CoA, the entry molecule for the Krebs Cycle.
- Biosynthesis : The production of chemical metabolites by living systems.
- Carbohydrate metabolism : The various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms.
- Diabetic neuropathy : Negative effects on the nervous system that can be caused by diabetes mellitus, some of which may necessitate amputation.
- Fatty acid metabolism : Oxidative degradation of saturated fatty acids in which two-carbon units are sequentially removed from the molecule with each turn of the cycle, and metabolized so that it can be used as a source of energy in aerobic respiration.
- Glucose-6-phosphate : (G6P), is glucose that has been phosphorylated on carbon 6. The conversion from glucose to G6P is the first step of glycolysis for energy production in cells.
- Glutamic acid : One of the 20 common amino acids and one of two acidic amino acids.
- Glycolysis : A biochemical pathway by which a molecule of glucose is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvate.
- Metabolism : The modification of chemical substances by living organisms.
- Photosynthesis : The process by which an organism captures and stores energy from sunlight, energy it uses to power its cellular activities.
- Proline : A cyclic, non-polar amino acid used in proteins.