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- Carbon fixation, whereby CO2 is reduced to carbohydrate.
- Glycolysis - the breakdown of the glucose molecule in order to obtain ATP
- the Pentose phosphate pathway, which acts in the conversion of hexoses into pentoses and in NADPH regeneration.
- Glycogenesis - the conversion of excess glucose into glycogen in order to prevent excessive osmotic pressure buildup inside the cell
- Glycogenolysis - the breakdown of glycogen into glucose, in order to provide a steady level of glucose supply for glucose-dependent tissues.
- Gluconeogenesis - de novo synthesis of glucose molecules from simple organic compounds