Cryptographic key/Related Articles
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- Advanced Encryption Standard : A US government standard issued in 2002 for a stronger block cipher to succeed the earlier Data Encryption Standard.
- Block cipher : A symmetric cipher that operates on fixed-size blocks of plaintext, giving a block of ciphertext for each
- Caesar cipher : One of the first ciphers, developed by Julius Caesar
- Ciphertext : The result of applying a encryption algorithm and an encryption key to plaintext]
- Cipher : A means of combining plaintext (of letters or numbers, or bits), using an algorithm that mathematically manipulates the individual elements of plaintext, into ciphertext, a form unintelligible to any recipient that does not know both the algorithm and a randomizing factor called a cryptographic key
- Clandestine human-source intelligence operational techniques : "Tradecraft" of espionage and activities supporting it, such as secret communication, document forgery, etc.
- Claude Shannon : (1916-2001) A theoretical mathematician and electrical engineer, one of the foundational researchers in computer and communications design.
- Cryptography : A field at the intersection of mathematics and computer science that is concerned with the security of information, typically the confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of some message.
- Cryptology : The theory and practice of protecting the content of communications, and of defeating the protective measures
- Data Encryption Standard : A block cipher specification issued by the U.S. government in 1976, intended for sensitive but unclassified data. It is now obsolescent, succeeded by the Advanced Encryption Standard, but still used in commercial systems.
- Diffie-Hellman : A technique that allows two parties to safely establish a shared secret for use as a cryptographic key, even if someone is eavesdropping on their interaction. It requires that the parties have some means of authentication to be sure they are talking to the right person.
- Digital Rights Management : Legal and technical techniques used by media publishers in an attempt to control distribution and usage of distributed video, audio, ebooks, and similar electronic media.
- Digital signature : A technique based on public key cryptography to allow people to "sign" documents using their private keys.
- Hashed message authentication code : A technique for authenticating a message using a hash function and a secret key.
- Hybrid cryptosystem : A system that combines public key with secret key methods; usually with a cryptographic hash for authentication as well.
- Information theory : Theory of the probability of transmission of messages with specified accuracy when the bits of information constituting the messages are subject, with certain probabilities, to transmission failure, distortion, and accidental additions.
- JWICS : A military and intelligence communications system approved for classified information designated collateral TOP SECRET, as well as any information in a compartmented control system such as Sensitive Compartmented Information (SCI) or Special Access Program (SAP)
- Kerckhoffs' Principle : The principle, formulated by Auguste Kerckhoffs, that security in a cipher should not depend on keeping the details of the cipher secret; it should depend only on keeping the key secret.
- Meet-in-the-middle attack : An attack on a block cipher in which the attacker can calculate possible values of the same intermediate variable (the middle) in two independent ways, starting either from the input of the cipher (plaintext) or from the output ( ciphertext); he calculates some possible values each way and compares the results.
- National Security Agency : An organization within the United States Department of Defense, with the dual roles of the principal signals intelligence agency in the United States intelligence community, but also having the responsibility for information assurance of military, diplomatic, and other critical communications.
- New Zealand : Country in the South Pacific; constitutional monarchy and a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.
- One-time pad : A cipher system in which the cryptographic key, i.e. the secret used to encrypt and decrypt messages, is a sequence of random values, each one of which is only ever used once, and only to encrypt one particular letter or word.
- Plaintext : In cryptography, the unencrypted message
- Stream cipher : A cipher that encrypts data by mixing it with the output of a pseudorandom number generator controlled by a key; to decrypt, run the same generator with the same key to get the same pseudorandom data, then reverse the mixing step.
- United States intelligence community : The United States' intelligence agencies coordinated by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence.
- Vatican City : City state in Europe.
- World War II, Pacific : The part of World War II (1937-45) fought in Asia and the Pacific Ocean between Japan and the U.S., China, Britain, Australia, and other Allies.