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- Biology : The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future.
- Medicine : The study of health and disease of the human body.
- Central nervous system : The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
- Brain : The core unit of a central nervous system.
- Mesencephalon : Portion of the brain located superior to the pons and medulla and containing the motor nuclei of the ocular motor and trochlear nerves, and the major pathways and decussations of fibers from the cerebrum and cerebellum.
- Red nucleus : Structure in the rostral midbrain involved in motor coordination, which comprises a caudal magnocellular and a rostral parvocellular part.
- Pons : Add brief definition or description
- Medulla oblongata : Add brief definition or description
- Spinal cord : Part of the central nervous system with the brain, enclosed by the vertebral column; carries neural signals from the brain and sensory information from the rest of the body, and is also responsible for certain reflexes.
- Cerebellum : The small brain — a part of the hindbrain in vertebrates.
- Nerve : A bundle of nerve fibres that connects the central nervous system with other organs in an animal body.
- Cranial nerve : Add brief definition or description
- Peripheral nervous system : The part of the nervous system consisting of the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to serve the limbs and organs.