From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
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- Adenosine triphosphate : A molecule sometimes called the "energy currency" of a cell
- Anion : A chemical ion with a negative charge. Positive ions are called cations.
- Arginine : A positively charged common amino acid, incorporated into proteins.
- Cell (biology) : The basic unit of life, consisting of biochemical networks enclosed by a membrane.
- Chemical thermodynamics : The study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics.
- Chemistry : The science of matter, or of the electrical or electrostatical interactions of matter.
- DNA : A macromolecule — chemically, a nucleic acid — that stores genetic information.
- Farming with raw sewage : Use of human waste to fertilise and irrigate crops; particularly common where water is scarce.
- Glucose-6-phosphate : (G6P), is glucose that has been phosphorylated on carbon 6. The conversion from glucose to G6P is the first step of glycolysis for energy production in cells.
- Glycogenolysis : Breakdown conversion of glycogen to glucose, which occurs in the liver and is stimulated by glucagon from the pancreas and adrenaline from the adrenal medulla.
- Lipid : Group of organic compounds, including the fats, oils, waxes, sterols, and triglycerides, that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents, and together with carbohydrates and proteins constitute the principal structural material of living cells.
- Metabolism : The modification of chemical substances by living organisms.
- Microbial metabolism : The means by which a microbe obtains the energy and nutrients (e.g. carbon) it needs to live and propagate.
- Nuclear fuel cycle : The progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages, also called the nuclear fuel chain.
- Ocean circulation : The constant motion of the ocean waters caused by winds, the gravity pull of both Moon and Sun and seawater density differences.
- Phosphorus : Chemical element (Z=15) vital to life and widely used in fertilizers, detergents and pesticides.
- Polyatomic ion : An ion consisting of a molecule with covalently bonded atoms or of a metal complex that can be considered to act as a single unit in the context of acid and base chemistry or in the formation of salts (i.e., a group of bonded atoms that act as if they were one).
- RNA world hypothesis : Proposes that a world filled with life based on ribonucleic acid (RNA) predated current life based on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
- Rhabdomyolysis : Acute, fulminant, potentially fatal disease that destroys skeletal muscle and is often accompanied by the excretion of myoglobin in the urine.
- Western Sahara : Add brief definition or description