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- Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor : Naturally occurring protein that stimulates the production of granulocytes and macrophages by stem cells and is used as a drug by some immunosuppressed individuals.
- Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor : A protein, produced for medical use by recombinant DNA technology, which accelerates the production of granulocytes, especially neutrophils; it also mobilizes hematopoetic stem cells; drug known as filgrastim
- Leukocyte : Colourless cells of the immune system which defend the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials, and grouped into neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes.
- Polymorphonuclear leukocyte : Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes
- Band neutrophil : An immature neutrophil, having only one, or fewer than 3, lobes in its nucleus; bands entering the circulation are often indicative of a response to infection; this condition may be called a "left shift"
- Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) : IgG antibody employed against antigens in the cytoplasm of neutrophils and monocytes; considered diagnostic for Wegener's granulomatosis and suggestive of other autoimmune diseases
- Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) : Absolute number of neutrophils per cubic microliter of blood
- Neutropenia : A decrease in the number of neutrophilic leukocytes in the blood.
- Opsonins : A family of proteins, generated by various immune mechanisms, which "tag" cells as targets for defensive digestion by cells that perform phagocytosis
- Phagocytosis : That part of immune response in which defensive cells such as neutrophils and macrophages surround and "digest" foreign particles
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- Asthma : Disease process that is characterised by paradoxical narrowing of the bronchi, making breathing difficult.
- Bile : Bile acids, bile salts, cholesterol and electrolytes produced in the liver and secreted into the duodenum via the common bile duct.
- C-reactive protein : Globulin that appears in the blood in certain acute inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatic fever, bacterial infections, and neoplastic diseases.
- Cell membrane : The outer surface of a cell which encloses its contents.
- Complement (immunologic) : A sequence of normally inactive proteins, which, when activated by foreign proteins of bacteria and other microorganisms, produce protein variants that variously open holes in the cell wall of invaders, and also opsonize the foreign cells to make them "tasty" to attack cells that will destroy them with phagocytosis
- Complete blood count : A basic set of counts and ratios of various blood cells, which can be both individually and jointly valuable in medical diagnosis
- Eosinophil : A leukocyte (white blood cell), the number of which rise in inflammatory disorders and parasitic infections
- Histamine : A biogenic amine involved in local immune responses as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter.
- Hydrocortisone : The most important human glucocorticoid, a steroid hormone, produced by the adrenal cortex.
- Immunoglobulin : Proteins produced by lymphocytes, which are primarily antibodies to attack material the body considers hostile, although some may act as cytokines, signaling to other cells
- Immunology : The study of all aspects of the immune system in all animals.
- Lymphocyte : Leukocyte originating in lymphoid tissues, fundamental to the immune system, regulating and participating in acquired immunity, with receptor molecules on its surface that bind to a specific antigen.
- Macrophage : A type of leukocyte (i.e., white blood cells) that is associated with chronic inflammatory response. It digests foreign cells using the mechanism of phagocytosis, and both circulates in the blood, but later attaches to tissue as a part of local immune response.
- Pilus : Hairlike appendage found on the surface of many Gram-negative bacteria, shorter, thinner and straighter than flagella.
- Probiotics : Live microbial dietary supplements which beneficially affect the host animal's intestinal microbial balance.
- Protein : A polymer of amino acids; basic building block of living systems.
- Reticuloendothelial system : Part of the immune system, consisting of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue, and primarily monocytes and macrophages.
- Staphylococcus aureus : Facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive pathogenic coccus capable of producing suppurative lesions, furunculosis, pyemia, osteomyelitis, food poisoning, and may be resistant to commonly used antibiotics.
- Streptococcus pneumoniae : Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic, bile soluble diplococcus recognized as a major cause of pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, and other diseases in humans.
- Streptococcus pyogenes : Spherical Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium that grows in long chains and is the cause of Group A streptococcal infections, and fatal septicemias.
- Stress (physiology) : Pathological process resulting from the reaction of the body to external forces and conditions that tend to disturb the organism's homeostasis.
- Vaccine : "suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, or rickettsiae), antigenic proteins derived from them, or synthetic constructs, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases."(National Library of Medicine)