From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
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- Amino acid : Biochemical with an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain bonded to a central carbon.
- Arginine : A positively charged common amino acid, incorporated into proteins.
- Asparagine : One of the twenty common amino acids used by living organisms to build proteins. It is neutral but polar.
- Aspartic acid : One of the common amino acids incorporated into proteins. It is charged, polar, and hydrophilic.
- DNA : A macromolecule — chemically, a nucleic acid — that stores genetic information.
- Glass transition temperature : The temperature at which a glass-forming liquid transforms into a glass, which usually occurs upon rapid cooling.
- Glutamic acid : One of the 20 common amino acids and one of two acidic amino acids.
- Glutamine : A polar, neutral amino acid, the amide version of glutamic acid.
- Glycine : The smallest of the twenty common amino acids used by living organisms to build proteins.
- Histidine : One of the twenty common α-amino acids used by living organisms to build proteins.
- Intermolecular forces : Non-covalent forces between atoms and molecules; often synonymous with Van der Waals forces.
- Isoleucine : One of the twenty common amino acids used by living organisms to build proteins.
- Leucine : An aliphatic, non-polar, hydrophobic amino acids incorporated into proteins.
- Lysine : A positively charged amino acid used by living systems to build proteins.
- Macromolecular chemistry : The study of the physical, biological and chemical structure, properties, composition, and reaction mechanisms of macromolecules.
- Macromolecules : A large molecule exhibiting heavy molecular mass.
- Materials science : A multi-disciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering.
- Methionine : One of two common amino acids used in proteins that contain a sulfur atom.
- Molecular mass : The mass of a molecule expressed in unified atomic mass units.
- Nucleation : The extremely localized budding of a distinct thermodynamic phase.
- Organic chemistry : The scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements.
- Phenylalanine : An aromatic amino acid incorporated into proteins.
- Polymer chemistry : A multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers or macromolecules.
- Polymer : A compound of high molecular weight derived either by the addition of many smaller, similar molecules (monomers), or by the condensation of many smaller, similar molecules eliminating water, alcohol, etc.
- Proline : A cyclic, non-polar amino acid used in proteins.
- Protein : A polymer of amino acids; basic building block of living systems.
- Radiation chemistry : A subdivision of nuclear chemistry, which is the study of the chemical effects of radiation on matter.
- Serine : One of three hydroxylated amino acids used in protein synthesis; subject to phosphorylation.
- Threonine : One of three hydroxylated amino acids in proteins; it may be phosphorylated
- Tryptophan : One of four common aromatic amino acids in proteins.
- Tyrosine : One of four common aromatic amino acids use in protein synthesis; it may be phosphorylated.
- Valine : One of the twenty common amino acids used by living organisms to build proteins. It is aliphatic and non-polar.
- Vulcanization : A specific curing process of rubber involving high heat and the addition of sulfur or other equivalent curatives.