From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
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- Antibacterial : Substance that destroys bacteria or suppresses their growth or reproduction.
- Arginine : A positively charged common amino acid, incorporated into proteins.
- Asparagine : One of the twenty common amino acids used by living organisms to build proteins. It is neutral but polar.
- Aspartic acid : One of the common amino acids incorporated into proteins. It is charged, polar, and hydrophilic.
- DNA : A macromolecule — chemically, a nucleic acid — that stores genetic information.
- Excavation : The process by which an archeologist, paleoanthropologist or paleontologist uncovers material remains of the past.
- Gene : The functional unit of heredity.
- Glass transition temperature : The temperature at which a glass-forming liquid transforms into a glass, which usually occurs upon rapid cooling.
- Glutamic acid : One of the 20 common amino acids and one of two acidic amino acids.
- Glutamine : A polar, neutral amino acid, the amide version of glutamic acid.
- Glycine : The smallest of the twenty common amino acids used by living organisms to build proteins.
- Glycogen : Polysaccharide that is the main form of carbohydrate storage in animals and occurs primarily in the liver and muscle tissue.
- Histidine : One of the twenty common α-amino acids used by living organisms to build proteins.
- Intermolecular forces : Non-covalent forces between atoms and molecules; often synonymous with Van der Waals forces.
- Ion-selective electrodes : A transducer (sensor) which converts the activity of a specific ion dissolved in a solution into an electrical potential which can be measured by a voltmeter or pH meter.
- Isoleucine : One of the twenty common amino acids used by living organisms to build proteins.
- Leucine : An aliphatic, non-polar, hydrophobic amino acids incorporated into proteins.
- Ligase : A type of enzyme that binds together monomers to form polymers.
- Lysine : A positively charged amino acid used by living systems to build proteins.
- Macromolecular chemistry : The study of the physical, biological and chemical structure, properties, composition, and reaction mechanisms of macromolecules.
- Macromolecules : A large molecule exhibiting heavy molecular mass.
- Materials science : A multi-disciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering.
- Methionine : One of two common amino acids used in proteins that contain a sulfur atom.
- Microbial cell and population biology : The study of the cell biology of microorganisms, microbial interactions, signaling and evolutionary adaptations, multicellular-microorganisms and communities such as biofilms.
- Microbial metabolism : The means by which a microbe obtains the energy and nutrients (e.g. carbon) it needs to live and propagate.
- Molecular mass : The mass of a molecule expressed in unified atomic mass units.
- Monomer : A simple molecule of low molecular weight, capable of reacting with identical or different monomers to form a polymer, of which it is the smallest repeating unit.
- Nuclear chemistry : Subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties.
- Nucleation : The extremely localized budding of a distinct thermodynamic phase.
- Orch-OR : A speculative theory of consciousness proposed in the mid-1990s by British theoretical physicist Sir Roger Penrose and American anesthesiologist Stuart Hameroff.
- Phenylalanine : An aromatic amino acid incorporated into proteins.
- Photosynthesis : The process by which an organism captures and stores energy from sunlight, energy it uses to power its cellular activities.
- Polymer chemistry : A multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers or macromolecules.
- Proline : A cyclic, non-polar amino acid used in proteins.
- Protein : A polymer of amino acids; basic building block of living systems.
- Pseudomonas putida : Gram-negative,rod-shaped, saprotrophic soil bacterium which demonstrates a very diverse metabolism, including the ability to degrade organic solvents such as toluene, and is used in bioremediation.
- RNA interference : Process that inhibits the flow of genetic information to protein synthesis.
- RNA : A polymer, made using the nucleotides of adenosine, guanosine, uridine and cytidine, that is used for a variety of biological functions in living systems.
- Radiation chemistry : A subdivision of nuclear chemistry, which is the study of the chemical effects of radiation on matter.
- Serine : One of three hydroxylated amino acids used in protein synthesis; subject to phosphorylation.
- Sulfur : A yellowish crystalline chemical element with the symbol S and the atomic number of 16.
- Threonine : One of three hydroxylated amino acids in proteins; it may be phosphorylated
- Tryptophan : One of four common aromatic amino acids in proteins.
- Tyrosine : One of four common aromatic amino acids use in protein synthesis; it may be phosphorylated.
- Valine : One of the twenty common amino acids used by living organisms to build proteins. It is aliphatic and non-polar.
- Vulcanization : A specific curing process of rubber involving high heat and the addition of sulfur or other equivalent curatives.