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- Middle East : A geographical region in Asia that also contains small parts of Europe and Africa.
- Zionism : The ideology that Jews should form a Jewish state in what is traced as the Biblical area of Palestine; there are many interpretations, including the boundaries of such a state and its criteria for citizenship
- Middle East agreements : The wide range of public and secret correspondence, treaties, United Nations Security Council resolutions, announcements from high-level conferences and other negotiated approaches to stability in the Middle East.
- Balfour Declaration : A 1917 declaration by the British Foreign Secretary stating that U.K. government, in principle, endorsed the idea of a Jewish homeland in Palestine
- Hussein-McMahon Correspondence : A 1915 exchange of letters between Sharif Hussein bin Ali, Emir of Mecca, and Sir Henry McMahon, the High Commissioner for Egypt, setting the terms for Arab participation in the war against the Ottoman Empire, and their expectations for territory and independence as a result
- Arad, Israel : City in southern Israel, about 45 km from Beersheba and 25 km from the Dead Sea.
- Jerusalem : A city in the Middle East, with great religious significance to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; divided by the United Nations partition of the British Mandate of Palestine but captured by Israel in 1967; governed by State of Israel and claimed as its capital; Palestinian Authority claims East Jerusalem as its capital;
- Megiddo, Israel : Add brief definition or description
- Tel Aviv : Add brief definition or description
- Israeli War of Independence : Add brief definition or description
- 1956 Suez Crisis : Add brief definition or description
- 1967 Arab-Israeli War : Often called the "Six Days War", a decisive Israeli victory, starting with a preemptive attack, against Arab states preparing for battle; the West Bank, East Jerusalem, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights were captured
- 1973 Arab-Israeli War : Add brief definition or description
- First Intifada : Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation forces, 1987-1993
- Second Intifada : Also called the Al Aqsa Intifada, Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation forces that began in 2000; some consider it continuing while others saw it ending circa 2005, with less clarity about end state than with the First Intifada
- Ottoman Empire : An empire, informally the Turkish Empire, that dominated most of the Middle East from the 14th to early 20th century.