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- Albert Einstein : 20th-century physicist who formulated the theories of relativity.
- Automobile : A wheeled vehicle that carries its own engine; usually four-wheeled but is designed to stand stably without human intervention
- Bijective function : A function in which each possible output value corresponds to exactly one input value.
- Blaise Pascal : French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher.
- Chain rule : A rule in calculus for differentiating a function of a function.
- Chemistry : The science of matter, or of the electrical or electrostatical interactions of matter.
- Christiaan Huygens : (14 April 1629 - 8 June 1695) an internationally renowned Dutch mathematician, physicist and astronomer.
- Classical mechanics : The science of mechanics, which is concerned with the set of physical laws governing and mathematically describing the motions of bodies and aggregates of bodies geometrically distributed within a certain boundary under the action of a system of forces.
- Colin MacLaurin : (1698–1746) Scottish mathematician who published the first systematic exposition of Newton's calculus.
- Discourse on Method : Philosophical and mathematical treatise published by René Descartes in 1637, best known as the source of the famous quotation 'Je pense, donc je suis' ('I think, therefore I am').
- Elementary function : Mathematical functions built from a finite number of exponentials, logarithms, constants, one variable, and roots of equations through composition and combinations using the four elementary arithmetic operations (+ – × ÷).
- Exponential growth : Increase of a quantity x with time t according to the equation x = Kat, where K and a are constants, a is greater than 1, and K is greater than 0.
- Field (mathematics) : An algebraic structure with operations generalising the familiar concepts of real number arithmetic.
- Function composition : The successive application of two functions.
- Gamma function : A mathematical function that extends the domain of factorials to non-integers.
- Integral : A central concept in calculus that generalizes the idea of a sum to cover quantities which may be continuously varying.
- International Mathematical Olympiad : Annual mathematics contest for high school students from across the world.
- John Gregory : (1724–1773) Scottish physician who made major contributions to the field of medical ethics.
- Lambert W function : Used to solve equations in which the unknown appears both outside and inside an exponential function or a logarithm.
- Mathematics : The study of quantities, structures, their relations, and changes thereof.
- Number theory : The study of integers and relations between them.
- Pascal's triangle : A convenient tabular presentation for the binomial coefficients.
- Polynomial : A formal expression obtained from constant numbers and one or indeterminates; the function defined by such a formula.
- Real number : A limit of the Cauchy sequence of rational numbers.
- René Descartes : French 17th-century philosopher, mathematician and scientist, author of the Discourse on Method.
- Science : The organized body of knowledge based on non–trivial refutable concepts that can be verified or rejected on the base of observation and experimentation
- Serge Lang : (19 May 1927 – 12 September 2005) French-born American mathematician known for his work in number theory and for his mathematics textbooks, including the influential Algebra.
- Stochastic process : Family of random variables, dependent upon a parameter which usually denotes time.
- Trigonometric function : Function of an angle expressed as the ratio of two of the sides of a right triangle that contains that angle; the sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant.