Pharmacogenomics, or pharmacogenetics, is the "branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (biotransformation)."
Among drugs frequently cited in adverse drug reactions, 60% are metabolized by enzymes with genetic variations in metabolism. 7% to 22% of randomly selected have such variation.
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- Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) patients with HLA-B*1502 allele who take carbamazepine.
Screening for Cytochrome P-450 2C9 polymorphisms may improve warfarin dosing cmopared to the Ageno algorithm or may not improve warfarin dosing compared to the Kovacs 10 mg algorithm. However, even in the latter study a 2.4% absolute reduction in percent out-of-range International Normalized Ratios, although statistically insignificant, occurred.
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