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- Adenosine triphosphate : A molecule sometimes called the "energy currency" of a cell
- Bacteria : A major group of single-celled microorganisms.
- Biology : The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future.
- Cell (biology) : The basic unit of life, consisting of biochemical networks enclosed by a membrane.
- Cellular respiration : A series of metabolic processes by which living cells produce energy through the oxidation of organic substances.
- Chloroplast : The green organelles found in many higher plant cells and protists. Internal thylakoid membranes contain chlorophyll where photosynthesis takes place.
- DNA : A macromolecule — chemically, a nucleic acid — that stores genetic information.
- Endosymbiotic theory : Theory on the origins of mitochondria and plastids (e.g. chloroplasts), which are organelles of eukaryotic cells.
- Evolution : A change over time in the proportions of individual organisms differing genetically.
- Horizontal gene transfer in plants : Any process in which an organism transfers genetic material (i.e. DNA) to another cell that is not its cellular offspring, as distinct from vertical gene transfer where genes are inherited from parents or ancestors in a lineage of cellular organisms.
- Horizontal gene transfer : Transfer of genetic material to a being other than one of the donor's offspring.
- Life extension : Medical and non-medical attempts to slow down or reverse the processes of aging, to extend both the maximum and average lifespan.
- Metabolism : The modification of chemical substances by living organisms.
- Microbial metabolism : The means by which a microbe obtains the energy and nutrients (e.g. carbon) it needs to live and propagate.
- Microorganism : A 'germ', an organism that is too small to be seen individually with the naked eye.
- Plasmodium falciparum : Protozoan parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium that cause falciparum malaria in humans, transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito.
- Red blood cells : Also called erythrocytes; a type of disc-shaped blood cell that contain hemoglobin, and the body's principal means of delivering oxygen to the body's cells via the blood, and the removal of carbon dioxide wastes that result from metabolism.
- Rejuvenation (aging) : Hypothetical reversal of the aging process, aiming to repair the damage that is associated with aging or replacement of damaged tissue with new tissue.
- Trichomonas vaginalis : Anaerobic, parasitic flagellated protozoan, which is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, and is the most common pathogenic protozoan infection of humans in industrialized countries.
- Trypanosoma brucei : Parasitic obligate protist species, with three subspecies, that causes African trypanosomiasis (or sleeping sickness) in humans and nagana in animals in Africa.