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Menopause is defined as "the permanent cessation of menses (menstruation)."[1]

The typical duration of symptoms is 4 years[2] but may last over 10 years.


Estrogen replacement therapy may help.

Second-generation antidepressants (paroxetine, venlafaxine, fluoxetine) and gabapentin may reduce hot flashes according to meta-analysis.[3][4] A more recent randomized controlled trials report benefit from escitalopram which reduces the number of hot flashes per day by about one compared to placebo.[5].

Hot flushes can be reduced in some women with as little as 0.014 mg of 17--estradiol in a daily transdermal patch.[6]


  1. National Library of Medicine. Menopause. Retrieved on 2007-12-21.
  2. Politi MC, Schleinitz MD, Col NF (September 2008). "Revisiting the duration of vasomotor symptoms of menopause: a meta-analysis". J Gen Intern Med 23 (9): 1507–13. DOI:10.1007/s11606-008-0655-4. PMID 18521690. Research Blogging.
  3. Nelson HD, Vesco KK, Haney E, Fu R, Nedrow A, Miller J et al. (2006). "Nonhormonal therapies for menopausal hot flashes: systematic review and meta-analysis.". JAMA 295 (17): 2057-71. DOI:10.1001/jama.295.17.2057. PMID 16670414. Research Blogging. Review in: J Fam Pract. 2006 Aug;55(8):662
  4. Loprinzi CL, Sloan J, Stearns V, Slack R, Iyengar M, Diekmann B et al. (2009). "Newer antidepressants and gabapentin for hot flashes: an individual patient pooled analysis.". J Clin Oncol 27 (17): 2831-7. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2008.19.6253. PMID 19332723. PMC PMC2698018. Research Blogging.
  5. Freeman EW, Guthrie KA, Caan B, Sternfeld B, Cohen LS, Joffe H et al. (2011). "Efficacy of escitalopram for hot flashes in healthy menopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.". JAMA 305 (3): 267-74. DOI:10.1001/jama.2010.2016. PMID 21245182. Research Blogging.
  6. Bachmann GA, Schaefers M, Uddin A, Utian WH (2007). "Lowest effective transdermal 17beta-estradiol dose for relief of hot flushes in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial". Obstet Gynecol 110 (4): 771–9. DOI:10.1097/01.AOG.0000284450.51264.31. PMID 17906008. Research Blogging.