LAMP (application stack)
LAMP is an acronym that stands for "Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python." Packaged together, they create an application stack that is both free to use and open source which functions as a general purpose web server.
- Linux is an open source operating system
- Apache HTTP Server is an open source web server middleware
- MySQL is an open source Relational Database Management System (RDBMS, also known simply as a Database)
- PHP, Perl, or Python are server-side programming languages which can be installed on Apache.
The concept of a LAMP stack (the free general purpose web server) had been possible from as early as 1994 when CERN httpd introduced the Common Gateway Interface, which allowed for the server-side execution of code to create dynamic webpages. Linux, the CERN httpd, and server-side programming languages such as Perl were available for free,  but it wasn't until later that same year and the release of Postgre95 that it was possible to obtain a free database as well.
By 1995, the Apache HTTP server and PHP were released, allowing for a LAPP application stack. Finally in 1996, MySQL was released online and a full LAMP stack was possible. The popularity of the LAMP stack quickly increased during the dot-com bubble of the late 1990s, when many New Economy firms ran their websites with open source software for budget reasons.
Variations of LAMP packages (referred to as AMP packages) can differ based on the choice of operating system and other software
- LAPP substitutes PostgreSQL for MySQL
- A WAMP stack uses Microsoft Windows.
- The MAMP stack uses Macintosh computers (UNIX-based Mac OS X replaces the operating system layer).
- A SAMP stack uses the Sun Microsystems Solaris operating system.
- XAMPP is a cross-platform version of the bundle that can be downloaded and installed on Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Solaris, or Linux.
- OAMP runs on OpenBSD.
- DAMP runs on the Darwin operating system, but can also be used to refer to DragonFly BSD.
- SLAMPP is a Linux distribution that can be booted from an optical disc drive to turn any computer into an instant home web server.
- A LYME stack uses Linux as the OS, Yaws as the web server, Mnesia as the database, and Erlang as the programming language
- A fully Windows stack, WINS uses Windows Server as the OS, Internet Information Services (or IIS) as the web server, SQL Server as the database, and .NET as the programming language.
- WIMP is another variation of the above, except using MySQL or MS Access as the database and PHP as the programming language
|Acronym||Operating system||Web server||Database manager||Server programming|
|LAMP||Linux||Apache||MySQL||PHP, Perl, Python|
|LAPP||Linux||Apache||PostgreSQL||PHP, Perl, Python|
|SLAMPP||Linux bootable from optical drive||Apache||MySQL||PHP, Perl, Python, Ruby, Lua|
|MAMP||Macintosh||Apache||MySQL||PHP, Perl, Python|
|WAMP||Microsoft Windows||Apache||MySQL||PHP, Perl, Python|
|WINS||Windows Server||IIS||SQL Server||.NET|
|WIMP||Windows Server||IIS||MySQL, MS Access||PHP, Perl, Python|
|SAMP||Solaris||Apache||MySQL||PHP, Perl, Python|
|OAMP||OpenBSD||Apache||MySQL||PHP, Perl, Python|
|DAMP||Darwin, DragonFly BSD||Apache||MySQL||PHP, Perl, Python|
- The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) Version 1.1. The Apache Software Foundation (October 2004). Retrieved on 2009-11-30.
- Change History for CERN httpd
- Slackware Linux, Inc. (1993-07-16). ANNOUNCE: Slackware Linux 1.00. Press release. Retrieved on 2009-11-30.
- Ashton, Elaine (1999). The Timeline of Perl and its Culture. Perl.org. Retrieved on 2009-11-30.
- A Brief History of PostgreSQL. The PostgreSQL Global Development Group (1996). Retrieved on 2009-11-30.
- History of PHP. The PHP Group (27 Nov 2009). Retrieved on 2009-11-30.
- PHP release newsgroup posting from 1995
- How Apache Came to Be. The Apache Software Foundation. Retrieved on 2009-11-30.
- DuBois, Paul (2005). MySQL; Third Edition. Sams. ISBN 0672326736.
- Grimmer, Lenz. From Visions to Reality - an interview with David Axmark, Co-Founder of MySQL AB, MySQL AB, July 2007. Retrieved on 2009-11-30.
- Geipel, Markus Michael (2009). Dynamics of communities and code in open source software (PDF). ETH. Retrieved on 2009-11-30.