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- Albert Einstein : 20th-century physicist who formulated the theories of relativity.
- Electromagnetic radiation : a collection of electromagnetic waves, usually of different wavelengths.
- Electromagnetic wave : A change, periodic in space and time, of an electric field E(r,t) and a magnetic field B(r,t); a stream of electromagnetic waves, referred to as electromagnetic radiation, can be seen as a stream of massless elementary particles, named photons.
- Photon : elementary particle with zero rest mass and unit spin associated with the electromagnetic field.
- Quantum chemistry : A branch of theoretical chemistry, which applies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory to address issues and problems in chemistry.
- Symmetrizer : A linear operator that makes a wave function of N identical bosons symmetric under the exchange of the coordinates of any pair of bosons.