From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
- Linguistics : The scientific study of language.
- Language (general) : A type of communication system; this term is used in linguistics, computer science and other fields to refer to different systems, including 'natural language' in humans, programming languages run on computers, and so on.
- Phonetics : Study of speech sounds and their perception, production, combination, and description.
- Articulatory phonetics : Add brief definition or description
- Acoustic phonetics : Add brief definition or description
- Auditory phonetics : Add brief definition or description
- Phonology : In linguistics, the study of the system used to represent language, including sounds in spoken language and hand movements in sign language.
- Syllable : Unit of organisation in phonology that divides speech sounds or sign language movements into groups to which phonological rules may apply.
- Diphthong : Type of speech sound, articulated through the tongue commencing in the position of a single vowel and moving continuously in the direction of another; e.g. [əʊ] in English low.
- Nasalization : Add brief definition or description
- Voicing (linguistics) : Either the physical production of vibration by the vocal folds as part of articulation, or the potential phonological distinction this allows, i.e. the distinct difference between units such as [b] and [p] in many languages.
- Consonant : Unit of language, defined in phonetics as a speech sound that involves full or partial 'closure' of the mouth, and in phonology as a segment that cannot occupy the nucleus or 'peak' of a syllable.
- Vocal cords : Mucous membranes over the larynx that contribute to the production of sound in mammals.
- Pronunciation : Add brief definition or description
- Spoken language : An example of language produced using some of the articulatory organs, e.g. the mouth, vocal folds or lungs, or intended for production by these organs; alternatively, the entire act of communicating verbally - what people mean or intend, the words they use, their accent, intonation and so on.
- Written language : The communication and representation of a language by means of a writing system.
- Letter (alphabet) : Symbol in an alphabetic script, usually denoting one or more phonemes; for example, in the English alphabet the letter <a> can represent the phoneme /æ/ as in mat and /eɪ/ as in mate.