Supreme Court of the United States/Related Articles
From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
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- Government : The system by which a community or nation is controlled and regulated. A government is a person or group of persons who govern a political community or nation.
- Government of the United States of America : Add brief definition or description
- Law : Body of rules of conduct of binding legal force and effect, prescribed, recognized, and enforced by a controlling authority.
- United States of America : Constitutional republic in North America, has major land borders with Mexico and Canada.
- Abrogation doctrine : Doctrine of United States constitutional law which determines when and how the United States Congress may waive a state's sovereign immunity and subject the state to lawsuits to which the state has not consented (i.e., to "abrogate" state immunity to such suits).
- Abstention doctrine : Doctrines that a court of law might/must apply to refuse to hear a case to avoid intruding upon another court's power.
- Antonin Scalia : An Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, appointed by President Reagan in 1986.
- Samuel Alito : Associate Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court, nominated by President George W. Bush and confirmed in 2006.
- Sonia Sotomayor : (born June 25, 1954) American jurist, 111th Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States appointed by President Barack Obama in 2009
- William Rehnquist : 16th Chief Justice of the United States of America
- Benjamin N. Cardozo : Associate Justice of the Supreme Court (1932-1938), nominated by President Herbert Hoover to succeed Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr..
- Earl Warren : Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and Governor of California
- Louis D. Brandeis : (1856-1941) A highly influential American lawyer and theorist of Antitrust during the Progressive Era.
- Adkins v. Children's Hospital : A 1923 decision by the U.S. Supreme Court stricking down a minimum wage law, overruled in 1937.
- Clarence Earl Gideon : The petitioner/defendant in a landmark U.S. Supreme Court case, decided in 1963, establishing the right to counsel protected by the Sixth Amendment of the United States Constitution.
- Edwards v. Aguillard : 1987 Supreme Court of the United States case which found Louisiana's 'equal treatment' law to be an unconstitutional breach of the Establishment Clause.
- Ernesto A. Miranda : (1941–1976) Career criminal. One of his cases established "Miranda rights", due process rights regarding interviews following arrest.
- Ex parte Milligan : An 1866 decision of the Supreme Court of the United States that determined that a U.S. citizen, not part of the military or a prisoner of war, not in an area of hostilities, and where the civil courts were operating, could not be tried by a military tribunal
- Ex parte Quirin : A 1942 Supreme Court of the United States ruling that affirmed the right to try captured enemy personnel, who operated in civilian clothing, by a Presidentially appointed secret military tribunal
- Extrajudicial detention, U.S. : Situations where the Executive Branch of the United States government has detained individuals without the authority of the judicial branch of government; there have been many cases going back to through the early history of the nation, sometimes during overt war, and, perhaps better known at present, directed against non-national threats.
- Feist Publications v. Rural Telephone Service : A U.S. Supreme Court case which determined that facts or lists of facts could not be copyrighted.
- Franklin Pierce : (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) The 14th President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857.
- Gideon v. Wainwright : 372 U.S. 335 (1963), A landmark U.S. Supreme Court case establishing the right to counsel protected by the Sixth Amendment of the United States Constitution.
- Gifford Pinchot : (1865-1946) Establisher and former head of the U.S. Forest Service.
- Hamdan v. Rumsfeld : A 2006 decision by the Supreme Court of the United States, stating that there was no basis for trying, by U.S. military commission, a person captured in combat with U.S. allies on foreign soil, and turned over to U.S. forces
- Hamdi v. Rumsfeld : A 2004 opinion by the Supreme Court of the United States, which held that a U.S. citizen, captured in a combat zone and alleged to be bearing arms against the United States, still was entitled to a judicial hearing to determine if he was an enemy combatant subject to military, rather than civilian, law
- Homeschooling in the United States : Education or learning which takes place outside formal institutional structures or settings such as schools which is designed to meet the educational needs of young school-age children and to satisfy the requirements of state compulsory education statutes.
- Jose Padilla : An American citizen, convicted in 2007 of conspiring to assist in terrorism in foreign countries, who was originally arrested in 2002 by U.S. law enforcement, transferred by Presidential order to military custody and interrogation, and, as a result of Padilla v. Rumsfeld, sent back to civilian jurisdiction
- Kansas v. Crane : A 2002 decision of the Supreme Court of the United States, ruling that a person could not be adjudicated a sexual predator and put in indefinite medical confinement, purely on assessment of an emotional disorder, but such action required proof of a likelihood of uncontrollable impulse presenting a clear and present danger.
- Khaled el-Masri : A naturalized German citizen, who had been in U.S. extrajudicial detention, released, and sued the U.S. but had his case, el-Masri v. Tenet, rejected based on the state secrets privilege
- Korematsu v. United States : A U.S. Supreme Court case, in which the internment of Japanese-Americans was deemed constitutional due to military necessity
- Leser v. Garnett : A case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution had been constitutionally established.
- Linda Greenhouse : A Pullitzer Prize winning legal journalist who began covering the United States Supreme Court in 1972.
- Marbury v. Madison : An 1803 U.S. Supreme Court case that established its power of judicial review
- Medicalizing sexual offenses : The role of the medical and social sciences in the adjudication of sexual offenses and in the disposition of offenders
- Meyer v. Nebraska : 1923 U.S. Supreme Court decision striking down a Nebraska law forbidding the teaching of modern languages other than English to young schoolchildren.
- Military Commissions Act of 2006 : U.S. law authorizing the President or Secretary of Defense to create tribunals for determining the prisoner of war status of persons captured as non-national combatants, and to try them, outside the regular judicial system, for war crimes
- Millard Fillmore : The thirteenth President of the United States following the death of President Zachary Taylor.
- Mormon Church v. United States : An 1890 decision of the U.S. Supreme Court which disincorporated the Mormon Church and authorized the seizure of all its property.
- Rasul v. Bush : A decision of the Supreme Court of the United States, in 2004, that prisoners in military extrajudicial detention, specifically at Guantanamo Bay detention camp, had proper standing to request habeas corpus review in the Federal judicial system
- Robert A. Taft : Add brief definition or description
- Robert Bork : Attorney and jurist; professor at the Ave Maria School of Law in Ann Arbor, Michigan and the Tad and Diane Taube Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Hoover Institution; Distinguished Fellow, Hudson Institute; American Enterprise Institute 1988-2003; Solicitor General (U.S.) from 1973 to 1977; acting U.S. Attorney General from 1973 to 1974; and Circuit Judge of the U. S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit from 1982 to 1988; nominated by Ronald Reagan, but was not confirmed as an associate justice, Supreme Court of the United States
- Roe v. Wade : 1973 United States Supreme Court decision that made most state laws outlawing abortion unconstitutional.
- Rumsfeld v. Padilla : Decided in 2004, a Supreme Court of the United States ruling that a specific court did not have jurisdiction over the habeas corpus petition of a U.S. citizen, arrested by U.S. law enforcement on U.S. soil, but designated an enemy combatant by the President and put into military extrajudicial detention
- United States v. Lopez : A landmark Supreme Court case which struck down Gun-Free School Zones Act of 1990 as violative of the Interstate Commerce Clause.
- William Howard Taft : (1857 – 1930) The 27th President and 10th Chief Justice of the United States.