From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
- Health : The default state of an organism under optimal conditions, a state characterized by the absence of disease and by the slowest natural rate of senescing.
- Health science : The helping professions that use applied science to improve health and to treat disease.
- Circadian rhythms and appetite : Daily variations in the regulation of food intake.
- Energy balance in pregnancy and lactation : Adaptations in the control of food intake and energy expenditure in different reproductive states.
- Evolution of appetite regulating systems : Comparisons of the mechanisms regulating food intake and energy expenditure between species.
- Genetics of obesity : The evidence for a genetic component to obesity in humans.
- Glucostatic theory of appetite control : The theory that changes in blood glucose concentrations or arteriovenous glucose differences are detected by glucoreceptors that affect energy intake.
- Melanocortins and appetite : The regulation of food intake through neuropeptides related to adrenocorticotropic hormone.
- Stress and appetite : The interactions between the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the regulation of food intake.
- Diabesity : A term referring to the intricate relationship between type 2 diabetes and obesity.
- Bariatric surgery : The surgical removal of body fat.
- Drug treatments for obesity : Treatments of obesity that are based on drugs.
- Exercise and body weight : Correlation between physical activity and the body mass index.
- Food reward : The brain mechanisms involved in reinforcing feeding behaviour.
- Gut-brain signalling : The interaction between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain.
- Health consequences of obesity : Long-term effects of obesity on health.
- Adipocyte : Cell that stores fat and makes it available for use as energy.
- Leptin : Hormone secreted by adipocytes that regulates appetite.
- Ghrelin : A hormone produced by P/D1 cells lining the fundus of the human stomach that stimulate appetite.
- Hypothalamus : A part of the mammalian brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon.
- Arcuate nucleus : An aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus with important roles in appetite regulation and in the control of growth hormone secretion and prolactin secretion.
- Hunger : Localized subjective sensation, caused by emptiness and a resulting hypermotility of the stomach.
- Satiety : Add brief definition or description
- Cholecystokinin : Peptide hormone synthesised by L-cells in the mucosal epithelium of the duodenum, and secreted in response to the presence of partially digested lipids and proteins.
- Poverty and obesity : Relation between obesity and diet quality, dietary energy density, and energy costs.
- Obesogenic environment : The theory that the modern way of living encourages the consumption of energy and discourages the expenditure of energy.
- Healthy obesity : The healthy obese phenotype is characterized by favorable cardiometabolic risk factors despite excess adipose tissue.
- Normal weight obesity : The combination of normal body mass index (BMI) and high body fat content is associated with a high prevalence of cardiometabolic dysregulation, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk factors.
- Lipostatic hypothesis : The theory that the hypothalamic satiety mechanisms are sensitive to the concentration of circulating metabolites.
- Aminostatic hypothesis : The theory of reciprocal relationship between the serum amino acid concentration and appetite.
- Energostatic hypothesis : The theory that appetite is regulated by the availability of energy for the brain.
- Evolutionary medicine : The study of diseases from the point of view of human evolutionary biology