Nazi medical experiments/Related Articles
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- Nazi race and biological ideology : The policies of Nazi Germany, based on the views of Adolf Hitler, which emphasized encouraging the breeding of what he considered to be a superior race and preventing the breeding, or actively killing, what he considered subhuman
- Medical ethics : The study of moral values as they apply to medicine.
- The Holocaust : Nazi Germany's systematic economic exploitation, followed by killing, of European Jews and others deemed racial and ideological enemies
- War crime : Acts that violate the laws of war as they applied in the time and place of commission, or that were deemed violations of law, possibly ex post facto, as determined by a competent tribunal
- Nazi freezing experiments : A program of nonconsensual Nazi medical experiments, conducted primarily for the Luftwaffe, between August 1942 - May 1943, to investigate treatments for persons who had been severely chilled, using prisoners at the Dachau Concentration Camp; the experimenters were tried in the Medical Case (NMT)
- Nazi high altitude experiments : A series of Nazi experiments conducted, against the will of the subjects, on concentration camp prisoners, frequently resulting in death or severe injury. They were intended to learn human responses to the cold and oxygen deprivation of high-altitude flight.
- Nazi malaria experiments : Nonconsensual Nazi experiments, conducted between February 1942 at April 1945 at [Dachau Concentration Camp]]; purpose was to test immunization for and treatment of malaria; 9 defendants were charged in the Medical Case (NMT)
- Nazi mustard gas experiments : Experiments conducted in Sachsenhausen, Natzweiler, and other Nazi concentration camps (September 1939 - April 1945) on behalf the German armed forces to investigate treatment of injuries caused by mustard gas, called "Lost" by Germany
- Nazi sulfanilamide experiments : A set of Nazi medical experiments in which doctors inflicted and deliberately infected wounds in unwilling prisoners, and then assessed sulfanilamide and other drug treatments for the benefit of the German military
- Nazi regeneration and transplantation : Add brief definition or description
- Nazi seawater experiments : Nonconsensual Nazi medical experiments (July - September 1944), performed for the Luftwaffe and navy to test methods of making seawater drinkable; experiments were conducted at [Dachau Concentration Camp]]
- Nazi epidemic jaundice experiments : Conducted between June 1943 and January 1945, for the benefit of the German armed forces to investigate causes of and inoculations against "epidemic jaundice"; nonconsensual experiments were conducted on Polish prisoners at Sachsenhausen and Natzweiler Concentration Camps, to investigate the causes of epidemic jaundice and vaccines against it
- Nazi typhus and other vaccine experiments : Conducted for the benefit of the German armed forces to test the effectiveness of vaccines against typhus, smallpox, cholera, and other diseases at Buchenwald Concentration Camp and Natzweiler Concentration Camp (December 1941 - February 1945}
- Nazi poison experiments : Conducted (December 1943-October 1944) at [Buchenwald Concentration Camp]] (food) and Sachsenhausen (bullets), to investigate the effect of various poisons, including poison in food and poisoned bullets.
- Nazi incendiary bomb experiments : At Buchenwald Concentration Camp (November 1943 - January 1944), Nazi medical experiments were onducted to test pharmaceutical treatments for phosphorus burns; nonconsenting prisoners were burned by incendiary bombs.
- Nazi sterilization experiments : In addition to the surgical methods of the earlier parts of the Nazi sterilization program, these experiments, between March 1941 and January 1945, explored unproven techniques; they were ordered to develop methods of rapid, large scale sterilization
- Nazi skeleton collection : Conducted to complete a skeleton collection for an anatomical research project for Nazi race and biological ideology, under August Hirt at the Reich University of Strasbourg; one hundred twelve Jews at [Auschwitz Concentration Camp]] were killed for the purpose.
Persons tried in NMT
Physicians and scientists
- Hermann Becker-Freyseng : Staff physician of the WWII Luftwaffe, Chief of Department for Aviation Medicine of the Chief of Medical Services; charged in the Medical Case (NMT)
- Wilhelm Beiglboeck : Consulting physician to the WWII Luftwaffe and defendant in the Medical Case (NMT)
- Kurt Blome : Nazi Deputy Reich Health Leader; Plenipotentiary for Cancer Research in the Reich Health Council; acquitted of charges in the Medical Case (NMT)
- Karl Brandt : Senior medical officer of Nazi Germany, Gruppenfuhrer in the SS and personal physician to Adolf Hitler; executed for war crimes related to the Holocaust, including involuntary medical experiments and the technical aspects of genocide.
- Fritz Fischer : SS-Sturmbannfueher in the Waffen SS; Assistant Physician to Karl Gebhardt at the Hohenychen Hospital; defendant in the Medical Case (NMT)
- Karl Gebhardt : A Nazi physician and Chief Surgeon of the SS; executed for Holocaust-related war crimes after conviction in the Medical Case of the Nuremberg Military Tribunals
- Karl Genzken : Gruppenfuehrer in the Waffen SS and chief of its Medical Department; defendant in the Medical Case (NMT) sentenced to life imprisonment
- Waldemar Hoven : SS-Hauptsturmfueher and camp physician at Buchenwald Concentration Camp; executed for war crimes as a result of the Medical Case (NMT)
- Siegfried Handloser : Lieutenant General of Medical Service; Medical Inspector of the Army; Chief of the Medical Services of the Armed Forces of Nazi Germany; defendant in the Medical Case (NMT) sentenced to life imprisonment
- Joachim Mrugowsky : A Nazi Schutzstaffel (SS) physician, with the rank of Oberfuehrer; Chief of the SS Hygienic Institute; condemned and executed for war crimes by the Medical Case trial at the Nuremberg Military Tribunals
- Herta Oberheuser : Physician at the Ravensbrueck Concentration Camp and assistant to Karl Gebhardt in the Hohelychen Hospital; convicted of war crimes in the Medical Case (NMT)
- Helmut Poppendick : SS-Oberfuehrer, chief of the Personal Staff of the Reich Physician SS, Ernst Grawitz
- Gerhardt Rose : Brigadier General of the WWII Luftwaffe; Vice President and Chief of the Department of Tropical Medicine, and Professor of the Robert Koch Institute; sentenced to life imprisonment in the Medical Case (NMT)
- Siegfried Ruff : Director of the Department for Aviation Medicine at the German Experimental Institute for Aviation; defendant at the Medical Case (NMT)
- Hans Wolfgang Romberg : Staff physician at the Department for Aviation Medicine at the German Experimental Institute for Aviation; defendant at the Medical Case (NMT) charged with participation in Nazi high altitude experiments
- Konrad Schaefer : Staff physician at the Institute for Aviation Medicine in Berlin; defendant at the Medical Case (NMT)
- Oskar Schroeder : Lieutenant General of Medical Service in the WWII Luftwaffe and Chief of its Medial Service; sentenced to life imprisonment by the Medical Case (NMT)
- Georg August Weltz : Lieutenant Colonel of the WWII Luftwaffe Medical Service; Chief of the Institute for Aviation Medicine; acquitted in the Medical Case (NMT)
- Viktor Brack : SS-Oberfuehrer; Chief Administrative Officer of the Chancellery of the Fuehrer, Adolf Hitler's personal office (as distinct from the Nazi Party Chancellery headed by Martin Bormann; key manager of the Nazi euthanasia program; executed by sentence of the Medical Case (NMT) tribunal
- Rudolf Brandt : Standartenfuhrer (colonel) of the Nazi SS who was personal administrative officer to Heinrich Himmler; executed after conviction for war crimes in the Medical Case of the Nuremberg Military Tribunals
- Wolfram Sievers : SS-Standartenfuehrer; nonscientist manager of the Ahenerbe Society, Director of its Institute for Military Scientific Research]] and Deputy Chairman of the Managing Board of Directors of the Reich Research Council; tried in the Medical Case (NMT) and executed
- Philip Bouhler : (1899-1945) Business manager of early Nazi Party; Head of the Chancellery of the Fuehrer, Adolf Hitler's personal office; key manager of the Nazi euthanasia program; committed suicide at war's end
- Carl Clauberg : (1898-1957) Nazi gynecologist involved, with Horst Schumann, in sterilization experiments; Heinrich Himmler was his patron; imprisoned by the Soviets 1945-1955; indicted by West Germany but died of a heart attack before trial
- Leonardo Conti : (1900-1945) Nazi Reich Health Leader (1939-1944), who headed the Nazi euthanasia program before Werner Heyde but was succeeded by Karl Brandt; also involved in Nazi medical experiments; committed suicide while awaiting trial
- Max de Crinis : German academic psychiatrist who took part in Nazi counterespionage operations and a possibly limited role in the Nazi euthanasia program
- Erwin Ding-Schuler : SS-Sturmbannfuehrer and medical officer at Buchenwald Concentration Camp; both helped prisoners and committed atrocities; committed suicide in September 1945
- Ernst Grawitz : SS-Obergruppenfuehrer and Chief Medical Officer of the SS; suggested the use of gas chambers for The Holocaust and supervised Nazi medical experiments; committed suicide at the war's end
- Josef Mengele : (1911-1979) A Nazi SS Hauptsturmfuhrer and physician at Auschwitz Concentration Camp, involved in direct killings and nonconsensual medical experiments on humans.
- Sigmund Rascher : SS physician involved in Nazi medical experiments; tried and executed by the SS for violations of its rules, involving hidden adoption of children and a falsified marriage
- Franz Stangl : Add brief definition or description
- Albert Widmann : Add brief definition or description
Sites of experiments
- Auschwitz Concentration Camp : Located in Poland, the largest Nazi concentration camp, combining slave labor and direct killing at the Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp; in excess of 2 million deaths; first commanded by Rudolf Hoess
- Buchenwald Concentration Camp : Located near on the northern slopes of the Ettersberg, about five miles northwest of Weimar in east-central Germany, second Nazi concentration camp established in 1937 as a camp for political prisoners, slave labor and medical experiments; one of the larger camps
- Dachau Concentration Camp : The first Nazi concentration camp, set up in 1933 by Theodor Eicke
- Natzweiler Concentration Camp : A fairly small concentration camp, also called Struthof, near the town of Natzweiler, 55 kilomtres south of Strasbourg, France; had quarries and underground factories, and used for Nazi medical experiments.
- Ravensbrueck Concentration Camp : Women's concentration camp 50 miles north of Berlin
- Karl Bonhoeffer : (1868–1948) German psychiatrist and neurologist; major early contributor to the classification of psychoses, retired 1937 to be replaced at Charité Hospital by Max de Crinis; refused to participate in Nazi sterilization experiments; father of Dietrich Bonhoeffer
- Nuremberg Code : The statement of ethical medical research on human beings that came from the Medical Case trials of Nazi medical personnel, which was part of the Nuremberg Military Tribunals; it forms the basis for the Declaration of Helsinki
- Declaration of Helsinki : Initiated in response to Nazi medical experiments and the resulting Nuremberg Code, the continually updated world agreement on ethical principles for medical research with human subjects
- U.S. intelligence involvement with World War II Japanese war criminals : Actions by intelligence agencies, primarily in the U.S. Army, where Japanese strongly suspected of war crimes were not prosecuted in exchange for information, such as details of the biological weapons program