From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
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- Anion : A chemical ion with a negative charge. Positive ions are called cations.
- Astatine : A chemical element having the chemical symbol At and an atomic number (the number of protons) of 85.
- Bacterial cell structure : Morphological and genetic features of unicellular prokaryotic organisms characterized by the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
- Brining : A process in which food is soaked in a salt solution (the brine) before cooking.
- Bromine : A chemical element, having the chemical symbol Br, and atomic number (the number of protons) 35.
- Carbon dioxide : Chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom.
- Cell (biology) : The basic unit of life, consisting of biochemical networks enclosed by a membrane.
- Cell membrane : The outer surface of a cell which encloses its contents.
- Chemical thermodynamics : The study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics.
- Chemistry : The science of matter, or of the electrical or electrostatical interactions of matter.
- Concentration : In science, engineering and in general common usage: the measure of how much of a given substance there is in a given mixture of substances.
- Condensate polishing : An ion exchange process used to purify the steam condensate produced in high-pressure steam generation facilities such as those in large thermal power plants.
- Density (chemistry) : A measure of the mass per unit volume of a gas, liquid or solid.
- Ester : The molecule R1AOOR2 where A is an atom and R1 and R2 are molecular groups.
- Exosphere : The uppermost layer of an atmosphere.
- Faraday constant : The amount of electric charge (in absolute value) of one mole of electrons or of one mole of monovalent (singly charged) ions; symbol F.
- Fluid catalytic cracking : A petroleum refining process that cracks the large hydrocarbon molecules in the portion of the petroleum crude oil boiling above 340 °C into lower boiling, more valuable high octane gasoline and olefinic gases.
- Galileo Probe : An unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons.
- Geomicrobiology : Study of microbes within inorganic environments, such as sedimentary rocks and aquifers.
- Glucosamine : Amino sugar component of chitin, heparan sulphate, chondroitin sulphate and many complex polysaccharides, used in treatment of osteoarthritis.
- IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry : A systematic way of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
- Intermolecular forces : Non-covalent forces between atoms and molecules; often synonymous with Van der Waals forces.
- Ion-selective electrodes : A transducer (sensor) which converts the activity of a specific ion dissolved in a solution into an electrical potential which can be measured by a voltmeter or pH meter.
- Ionic liquid : Salts that form stable liquids, and possess low-saturated vapor pressures.
- Life : Living systems, of which biologists seek the commonalities distinguishing them from nonliving systems.
- Matter : Please do not use this term in your topic list, because there is no single article for it. Please substitute a more precise term. See Matter (disambiguation) for a list of available, more precise, topics. Please add a new usage if needed.
- Michael Faraday : (1791 – 1867) Was an English physicist and chemist whose best known work was on the closely connected phenomena of electricity and magnetism; his discoveries lead to the electrification of industrial societies.
- Molecule : An aggregate of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds.
- Neurotransmitter : A class of chemicals which relay, amplify or modulate electrical signals between a neuron and other cells in the nervous system.
- Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine : Award conferred once a year by the Swedish Karolinska Institute, for physiology or medicine, since 1901.
- Oxidation state : A measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a substance.
- Patch clamp : An electrophysiological recording technique that enables the investigation of single or multiple ion channel properties.
- Phosphate : An inorganic chemical derived from a salt of phosphoric acid, and used in agriculture and industry.
- Polyatomic ion : An ion consisting of a molecule with covalently bonded atoms or of a metal complex that can be considered to act as a single unit in the context of acid and base chemistry or in the formation of salts (i.e., a group of bonded atoms that act as if they were one).
- Reduction potential : The tendency of a chemical species to acquire electrons and thereby be reduced.
- Resting potential : Potential difference between the two sides of the membrane of a nerve cell when the cell is not conducting an impulse, the resting potential for a neuron being between 50 and 100 millivolts.
- Saturn (planet) : The sixth planet from the Sun in our solar system; named after the Roman god of agriculture and harvest.
- Sulfur dioxide : A colorless gas (SO2) consisting of one atom of sulfur and two atoms of oxygen.