21st United States Congress

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United States Capitol

The Twenty-first United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1829 to March 3, 1831, during the first two years of the first administration of U.S. President Andrew Jackson.

The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Fourth Census of the United States in 1820. Both chambers had a Jacksonian or Democratic majority.

Dates of sessions

March 4, 1829 - March 3, 1831

  • Special session of the Senate: March 4, 1829 – March 17, 1829.
  • First session: December 7, 1829 - May 31, 1830.
  • Second session: December 6, 1830 - March 3, 1831.
  • Previous congress: 20th Congress
  • Next congress: 22nd Congress

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate
House of Representatives

Leadership

Senate
House of Representatives

Major events

Events of 1829, 1830 & 1831

Major legislation

List of United States federal legislation in the 21st Congress

Membership highlights by chamber

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1832; Class 2 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1834; and Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1830.

Alabama
Connecticut
Delaware
Georgia
Illinois
Indiana
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Mississippi
Missouri
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
Ohio
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
Tennessee
Vermont
Virginia

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives elected statewide on the general ticket or otherwise at-large, are preceded by an "A/L," and the names of those elected from districts, whether plural or single member, are preceded by their district numbers.

Many of the congressional district numbers are linked to articles describing the district itself. Since the boundaries of the districts have changed often and substantially, the linked article may only describe the district as it exists today, and not as it was at the time of this Congress.

Alabama
Connecticut [1]
Delaware
Georgia [2]
Illinois
Indiana
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland [3]
Massachusetts
Mississippi
Missouri
New Hampshire [4]
New Jersey [5]
New York [6]
North Carolina
Ohio
Pennsylvania [7]
Rhode Island [8]
South Carolina
Tennessee
Vermont
Virginia

Delegates

Arkansas Territory
Florida Territory
Michigan Territory

Membership detail by state

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1832; Class 2 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1834; and Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1830.

The names of members of the House of Representatives elected statewide on the general ticket or otherwise at-large, are preceded by an "A/L," and the names of those elected from districts, whether plural or single member, are preceded by their district numbers.

Many of the congressional district numbers are linked to articles describing the district itself. Since the boundaries of the districts have changed often and substantially, the linked article may only describe the district as it exists today, and not as it was at the time of this Congress.

The list below is arranged by state, then by chamber. Senators are shown in order of seniority, House members in district order.

Alabama

Senate
House of Representatives (3 seats)

Connecticut

Senate
House of Representatives (6 seats) [9]

Delaware

Senate
House of Representatives (1 seat)

Georgia

Senate
House of Representatives (7 seats) [10]

Illinois

Senate
House of Representatives (1 seat)

Indiana

Senate
House of Representatives (3 seats)

Kentucky

Senate
House of Representatives (12 seats)

Louisiana

Senate
House of Representatives (3 seats)

Maine

Senate
House of Representatives (7 seats)

Maryland

Senate
House of Representatives (9 seats) [11]

Massachusetts

Senate
House of Representatives (13 seats)

Mississippi

Senate
House of Representatives (1 seat)

Missouri

Senate
House of Representatives (1 seat)

New Hampshire

Senate
House of Representatives (6 seats) [12]

New Jersey

Senate
House of Representatives (6 seats) [13]

New York

Senate
House of Representatives (34 seats) [14]

North Carolina

Senate
House of Representatives (13 seats)

Ohio

Senate
House of Representatives (14 seats)

Pennsylvania

Senate
House of Representatives (26 seats) [15]

Rhode Island

Senate
House of Representatives (2 seats) [16]

South Carolina

Senate
House of Representatives (9 seats)

Tennessee

Senate
House of Representatives (9 seats)

Vermont

Senate
House of Representatives (5 seats)

Virginia

Senate
House of Representatives (22 seats)

Delegates

Arkansas Territory
Florida Territory
Michigan Territory

Membership detail by Chamber/Party

The list below is arranged by chamber, then by political party. Members are shown in alphabetical order.

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six year terms with each Congress.

Democratic
A-F
G-O
P-Z
National Republican
A-F
G-O
P-Z

House of Representatives

Members of the House of Representatives were elected by popular vote, variously to single member districts or at-large.

Democratic
A-B-C
D-E-F
G-H-I
J-K-L
M-N-O
P-Q-R
S-T-U-V
W-X-Y-Z
National Republican
A-B-C
D-E-F
G-H-I
J-K-L
M-N-O
P-Q-R
S-T-U-V
W-X-Y-Z
Anti-Masonic

Membership Changes

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate
  • replacements: 4
  • deaths: 4
  • resignations: 4
  • interim appointments: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 7
House of Representatives
  • replacements: 5
  • deaths: 2
  • resignations: 10
  • contested election: 2
  • Total seats with changes: 15

Senate

State Outgoing Senator Reason for Change Successor Successor's selection
Delaware
class 1
Louis McLane
Democratic
Resignation
Senator Louis McLane resigned April 16, 1829.
Arnold Naudain
Republican
elected
January 7, 1830.
Georgia
class 3
John Macpherson Berrien
Democratic
Resignation
Senator John Macpherson Berrien resigned March 9, 1829.
John Forsyth
Democratic
elected
November 9, 1829.
Illinois
class 2
John McLean
Democratic
Death
Senator John McLean died October 14, 1830.
David J. Baker
Democratic
appointed
November 12, 1830.
Illinois
class 2
David J. Baker
Democratic
Interim appointment
John M. Robinson was elected to fill seat of Senator John McLean.
John M. Robinson
Democratic
elected
December 11, 1830.
Indiana
class 1
James Noble
Republican
Death
Senator James Noble died February 26, 1831.
vacant not filled in this Congress
Mississippi
class 2
Thomas B. Reed
Democratic
Death
Senator Thomas B. Reed died January 24 1826.
Robert H. Adams
Democratic
elected
January 6, 1830.
Mississippi
class 2
Robert H. Adams
Democratic
Death
Senator Robert H. Adams died July 2, 1830.
George Poindexter
Democratic
appointed
October 15, 1830.
subsequently elected.
North Carolina
class 2
John Branch
Democratic
Resignation
Senator John Branch resigned March 9, 1829.
Bedford Brown
Democratic
elected
December 9, 1829.
Tennessee
class 1
John H. Eaton
Democratic
Resignation
Senator John H. Eaton resigned March 9, 1829.
Felix Grundy
Democratic
elected
October 19, 1829.

House of Representatives

State Outgoing Representative Reason for Change Successor Successor's selection
Georgia
3rd at large
vacant Vacancy
Vacancy from preceding Congress
Henry G. Lamar
Democratic
seated
December 7, 1829.
Maine
4th
vacant Vacancy
Vacancy from preceding Congress
George Evans
Republican
seated
December 7, 1829.
Maine
5th
James W. Ripley
Democratic
Resignation
Representative James W. Ripley resigned March 12, 1830.
Cornelius Holland
Democratic
seated
December 6, 1830.
New York
6th
Hector Craig
Democratic
Resignation
Representative Hector Craig resigned July 12, 1830.
Samuel W. Eager
Republican
seated
December 6, 1830.
New York
20th
George Fisher
Democratic
Contested election
Representative George Fisher served until February 5, 1830.
Silas Wright, Jr.
Republican
never seated
New York
20th
Silas Wright, Jr.
Republican
Resignation
Representative Silas Wright, Jr. resigned March 9, 1830.
Jonah Sanford
Democratic
seated
December 6, 1830.
New York
21st
Robert Monell
Democratic
Resignation
Representative Robert Monell resigned February 21, 1830.
vacant not filled in this Congress
North Carolina
5th
Gabriel Holmes
Democratic
Death
Representative Gabriel Holmes died September 26, 1829, before Congress assembled.
Edward B. Dudley
Democratic
seated
December 14, 1829.
Ohio
11th
John M. Goodenow
Democratic
Resignation
Representative John M. Goodenow resigned April 9, 1830, before Congress assembled.
Humphrey H. Leavitt
Democratic
seated
December 6, 1830.
Pennsylvania
8th first seat
Samuel D. Ingham
Democratic
Resignation
Representative Samuel D. Ingham resigned before Congress assembled.
Peter Ihrie, Jr.
Democratic
seated
December 7, 1829.
Pennsylvania
8th second seat
George Wolf
Democratic
Resignation
Representative George Wolf resigned before Congress assembled.
Samuel A. Smith
Democratic
seated
December 7, 1829.
Pennsylvania
16th
William Wilkins
Democratic
Resignation
Representative William Wilkins resigned before Congress assembled.
Harmar Denny
Anti-Masonic
seated
December 30, 1829
Virginia
1st
Thomas Newton, Jr.
Republican
Contested election
Representative Thomas Newton, Jr. served until March 9, 1830.
George Loyall
Democratic
seated
March 9, 1830
Virginia
10th
William C. Rives
Democratic
Resignation
Representative William C. Rives resigned in 1829.
William F. Gordon
Democratic
seated
January 25, 1830
Virginia
11th
Philip P. Barbour
Democratic
Resignation
Representative Philip P. Barbour resigned October 15, 1830.
John M. Patton
Democratic
seated
December 6, 1830.
Virginia
22nd
Alexander Smyth
Democratic
Death
Representative Alexander Smyth died April 17. 1830.
Joseph Draper
Democratic
seated
December 6, 1830.

Officers

Senate
Other
House of Representatives

Notes

  1. All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  2. All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  3. The 5th district was a plural district with two representatives.
  4. All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  5. All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  6. There were three plural districts, the 20th & 26th had two representatives each, the 3rd had three representatives.
  7. There were six plural districts, the 7th, 8th, 11th & 16th had two representatives each, the 4th & 9th had three representatives each.
  8. Both representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  9. All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  10. All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  11. The 5th district was a plural district with two representatives:
  12. All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  13. All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  14. There were three plural districts, the 20th & 26th had two representatives each, the 3rd had three representatives:
  15. There were six plural districts, the 7th, 8th, 11th & 16th had two representatives each, the 4th & 9th had three representatives each:
  16. Both representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.