Lexicon: Complete set of vocabulary units for a language, including information on their structural specifications (semantic, morphological, syntactic and phonological properties, plus how they inter-relate); also, the mental representation of this lexical knowledge and, in casual usage, a synonym for vocabulary. The word is also common in the titles of dictionaries of Arabic, Aramaic/Syriac, ancient Greek and Hebrew.
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- Chinese characters : (simplified Chinese 汉字; traditional Chinese: 漢字) are symbols used to write varieties of Chinese and - in modified form - other languages; world's oldest writing system in continuous use.
- Cranberry word : or 'fossilized term', used in morphology to refer to exceptional compound words not built from productive rules, e.g. cranberry (no such thing as *cran-).
- Dictionary : Reference work containing words classed alphabetically and giving information about spelling, etymology and usage.
- Esperanto : Artificial language created by L.L. Zamenhof in the late 19th century.
- Kanji : (漢字) Chinese-derived characters used to write some elements of the Japanese language.
- Language attrition : The loss of a first or second language or a portion of that language by individuals.
- Lexis : Total bank of words and phrases of a particular language, the artifact of which is known as a lexicon.
- Macedonian language : A language in the Eastern group of South Slavic languages and the official language of the Republic of Macedonia.
- Minimal pair : Two words differing by only one unit of sound, or phoneme.
- Morphology (linguistics) : The study of word structure; the study of such patterns of word-formation across and within languages, and attempts to explicate formal rules reflective of the knowledge of the speakers of those languages.
- Noam Chomsky : American linguist, MIT professor and left-wing political activist.
- Plural : Grammatical form that designates, relates to or composed of more than one member, set, or kind of objects specified.
- Politeness : Culturally defined phenomenon expressed as the application of good manners or etiquette.
- Programming language : A formal language specification, and programs for translating the formal language to machine code.
- Semantics (linguistics) : The subfield of the study of language which focuses on meaning.