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Furylfuramide (chemical names Alpha-2-furyl-5-nitro-2-furanacrylamide, 2-(2-Furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylic acid amide, a-(Furyl)-b-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylic amide, trans-2-(2-Furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide, 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl) acrylamide, 2-Furanacetamide, alpha-((5-nitro-2-furanyl)methylene)- [1],[2]; other names AF-2, FF, Tofuron), CAS number 3688-53-7, is a synthetic nitrofuran derivative which was widely used as a food preservative in Japan since at least 1965, but withdrawn from the market in 1974 when it was observed to be mutagenic to bacteria in vitro and thus suspected of carcinogenicity. This was confirmed later when animal testing[3] found it to cause benign and malignant tumors in the mammary glands, stomachs, esophagi, and lungs of rodents of both sexes, although insufficient evidence exists in human exposure [2].

This successful use of bacterial mutagenicity as a screen for carcinogenicity confirmed the use of this methodology as a rapid and efficient test, in comparison to animal testing alone, and led to its further development. The availability of such simpler tests in turn gave rise to greater government oversight and testing of compounds to which the public would be exposed [4]


  1. On-Line Medical Dictionary
  2. 2.0 2.1 (1998-04-16) "IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans" 31 Some Food Additives, Feed Additives and Naturally Occurring Substances: Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation[e]
  3. Hayatsu, Hiroka (1991). Mutagens in Food: Detection and Prevention. CRC Press, 286 pages. ISBN 0849358779. 
  4. Tazima, Y (April, 1979). "Consequences of the AF-2 incident in Japan". Environmental Health Perspectives 29: 183-187. [e]

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The most up-to-date information about Furylfuramide and other drugs can be found at the following sites.