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Electroencephalography is the process of recording, by electrodes placed on the scalp, a graphic chart tracing the electrical potentials produced by the brain cells and is commonly abbreviated as EEG. While it still has applications, especially in the evaluation of convulsive disorders, it has been replaced, in many uses, by newer brain imaging methods.

Hans Berger (born on May 21, 1873 and died on June 1, 1941) is credited to be the first to record electroencephalograms from human subjects and is the discoverer of the rhythmic Alpha waves in the brain.

The International Federation of Societies for Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology or IFSECN have given various recommendations for the practice of clinical neurophysiology and EEG.