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- Bacteria : A major group of single-celled microorganisms.
- Barbara McClintock : (1902 – 1992) - American cytogeneticist who won a Nobel Prize in 1983 for the discovery of genetic transposition.
- Bioengineering : The application of electrical, mechanical, chemical, optical, nuclear and other engineering principles to understand, modify and control biological (plants and animals - including human) systems.
- Cultivar : A crop variety propagated to a standardized combination of desirable characteristics.
- Ethics : The branch of philosophy dealing with standards of good and evil.
- Fungus : A eukaryotic organism, classified into the kingdom Fungi, that is heterotrophic and digest their food externally, and may be a yeast, mold, or mushroom.
- Genetic engineering : The process of manipulating genes, usually outside the organism's normal reproductive process.
- Genetics : The study of the inheritance of characteristics, genes and DNA.
- Life extension : Medical and non-medical attempts to slow down or reverse the processes of aging, to extend both the maximum and average lifespan.
- Medical ethics : The study of moral values as they apply to medicine.
- Organism : An individual living individual: a complex, adaptive physical system that acts a integrated unit that sustains metabolism and reproduces progeny that resemble it.
- Pollination management : Horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve yield or quality, by understanding of the particular crop's pollination needs, and by knowledgeable management of pollenizers, pollinators, and pollination conditions.
- Pollination : Process by which pollen is transferred in plants from the male reproductive organ (stamen or staminate cone) to the female reproductive organ (pistil or pistillate cone), thereby enabling fertilisation and sexual reproduction.
- Targeted gene replacement : Technique in which cloned DNA is introduced into mammalian stem cell culture, via gene modification in vitro.