Chronic disease

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In healthcare, chronic diseases are "diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)".[1][2]

The "chronic care model" has been proposed to explain describe long-term care of chronic diseases.[3][4][5]


  1. Anonymous (2021), Chronic disease (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  2. Timmreck, Thomas C. (1987). [id=LCC RA393 .T56 Dictionary of health services management], 2nd. Owings Mill, Md.: National Health Publishing. ISBN 0-932500-56-0. LCCN 86-614
  3. Wagner EH, Austin BT, Von Korff M (1996). "Organizing care for patients with chronic illness". Milbank Q 74 (4): 511–44. PMID 8941260[e]
  4. Wagner EH (February 2000). "The role of patient care teams in chronic disease management". BMJ 320 (7234): 569–72. PMID 10688568. PMC 1117605[e]
  5. Davis RM, Wagner EH, Groves T (April 1999). "Managing chronic disease". BMJ 318 (7191): 1090–1. PMID 10213697. PMC 1115494[e]