- Oncology : The medical diagnosis and treatment of neoplasia, using pharmacologic, radiation, immunologic and surgical techniques; relevant formal subspecialties are medical oncology in internal medicine and radiation oncology in radiology; surgeons also may specialize in neoplasia
- Carcinoma : Malignant tumors derived from epithelial cells; the most common class of cancer, including the common forms of breast, prostate, lung and colon cancer in humans, not a general term for cancer but frequently and incorrectly used as such
- Leukemia : Progressive but treatable disease of the leukocytes in the blood and their precursors in bone marrow; classified by the maturity of the proliferating cells
- Lymphoma : A malignancy of the lymphoid immune cells.
- Sarcoma : A class of neoplasms that originate in connective tissue or its precursor mesenchymal stem cells
- Mesothelioma : Tumors derived from the mesothelial cells lining the peritoneum and the pleura
- Glioma : A central nervous system tumor, which may be benign or malignant, which arises from neuroglial cells
- Germinoma : Tumors derived from germ cells, normally found in the testicle and ovary
- Choriocarcinoma : Malignant carcinoma derived from the placenta
- Breast cancer : Cancer of the glandular breast tissue.