Vasoconstrictor agent

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In medicine and pharmacology, vasoconstrictor agents or vasopressor agents are "drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels."[1]

Examples of sympathomimetic vasoconstrictor agents include:

Examples of peptide hormone vasoconstrictor agents include:

  • Vasopressin [r]: A hormone also called (arginine vasopressin, (AVP); formerly known as antidiuretic hormone, ADH), produced in the hypothalamus secreted from the posterior pituitary that causes kidneys to concentrate urine to conserve water, also causes vasoconstriction. [e]

Uses

Septic shock

Among the choices for pressors for treating septic shock, a randomized controlled trial concluded that there was no difference between the biogenic amines norepinephrine (plus dobutamine as needed for cardiac output) versus epinephrine.[2] Similarly, another randomized controlled trial found no difference between vasopressin and norepinephrine.[3] Another trial found no difference between norepinephrine and dopamine are similar in reducing mortality.[4]

Cardiogenic shock

Among the choices for pressors for treating cardiogenic shock, norepinephrine may be better than dopamine in reducing mortality. [5]

Hypovolemic shock

Among the choices for pressors for treating hypovolemic shock, norepinephrine and dopamine are similar in reducing mortality.[6]

References

  1. Anonymous (2015), Vasoconstrictor agent (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  2. Annane D, Vignon P, Renault A, et al (2007). "Norepinephrine plus dobutamine versus epinephrine alone for management of septic shock: a randomised trial". Lancet 370 (9588): 676-84. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61344-0. PMID 17720019. Research Blogging.
  3. Russell, J. A., Walley, K. R., Singer, J., Gordon, A. C., Hebert, P. C., Cooper, D. J., et al. (2008). Vasopressin versus norepinephrine infusion in patients with septic shock, N Engl J Med, 358(9), 877-887. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa067373
  4. NEJM 2010 Comparison of Dopamine and Norepinephrine in the Treatment of Shock
  5. NEJM 2010 Comparison of Dopamine and Norepinephrine in the Treatment of Shock
  6. NEJM 2010 Comparison of Dopamine and Norepinephrine in the Treatment of Shock