From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
- Natural language : A communication system based on sequences of acoustic, visual or tactile symbols that serve as units of meaning.
- Indoeuropean language : Add brief definition or description
- Afghanistan Civil War (1989-1994) : Conflict in Afghanistan between the departure of Soviet forces in 1989 and the taking of control by the Taliban in 1992, with conflict among mujahideen factions.
- Afghanistan : A Islamic republic in Central Asia, with an unstable but elected government; borders China, Iran, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
- Ahmad Shah Massoud : Tajik Military leader of the Northern Alliance against the Taliban in Afghanistan, and a noted fighter against the Soviet-supported government as well as the Soviets; assassinated by al-Qaeda on 9/9/2001; known as the Lion of the Panjshir
- Ari Babakhanov : An instrumental musician performing Central Asian traditional music, particularly of the Shash maqom style.
- Bagram Airport : A large airport, near Kabul, Afghanistan, with extensive military facilities.
- Burhanuddin Rabbani : President of Afghanistan during the post-Communist period, 1992-1996; a Tajik affiliated with the Northern Alliance
- Central Asia : A geographic area with many definitions, one common one based on the newly independent, predominantly Muslim republics of the former Soviet Union
- Dari : Add brief definition or description
- Dushanbe : Add brief definition or description
- Farsi : Add brief definition or description
- Hamid Karzai : President of Afghanistan, who took interim office in 2002, was reelected to a full five-year term in 2004, and gained another term after a disputed election in August 2009; Pashtun of the Durrani tribe
- Iran : Country in the Middle East.
- Ismail Khan : A Hazara warlord of western Afghanistan, whose base is in Herat, with good ties to but not under the control of Iran; he has been on both sides of warfare
- Kabul : Capital of Afghanistan.
- Kandahar Province : Add brief definition or description
- Khost Province : A province of Afghanistan, on the border with Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Area
- Mazar-e-Sharif : Afghanistan's second-largest city, in its north
- Northern Alliance : A military alliance against the Taliban in Afghanistan's civil war, which, with U.S. assistance, drove it from power in the Afghanistan War (2001-)
- Paktika Province : A province of eastern Afghanistan, on the border with Pakistan
- Pamir : Add brief definition or description
- Panjshir Valley : Surrounded by mountains in north-central Afghanistan, the traditional stronghold of the Tajiks of the Northern Alliance
- Parwan Province : A relatively peaceful province of Afghanistan, north of Kabul, and containing the key all-season route from the capital to the northern part of the country
- Pashtu : Add brief definition or description
- Shomali Plain : A plateau north of Kabul in Afghanistan, once fertile, devastated by war, and now being restored as farmland; it provides access to the only relatively safe north-south route in the country
- Soviet Union : A Communist state, which took over the Russian Empire, after the Russian Revolution of 1917 that existed from 1922 to 1991; the major part now extant as the Russian Federation
- Tajikistan : Bordered by Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, a landlocked, predominantly Muslim, nation of Central Asia, formerly part of the Soviet Union
- Taliban : Salafist Islamic militia, governing Afghanistan 1996–2001; still fighting in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
- Uzbek : An ethnic group of Central Asia, speaking a Turkic language