The stages of sleep include "Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep" and REM sleep. REM sleep is "characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming."
Disorders of sleep
Sedentary lifestyle, at least in children, may increase sleep latency.
Obstructive sleep apnea
The effects of sleep deprivation have been compared to ethanol. In one comparative study, "sleep loss was more potent than ethanol in its sedative effects but comparable in effects on psychomotor performance. Ethanol produced greater memory deficits, and subjects were less aware of their overall performance impairment." In a second study, "moderate levels of fatigue produce higher levels of impairment than the proscribed level of alcohol intoxication." While both factors impair performance, ethanol impairs self-perception of performance.
Sleep abnormalities and associations with other diseases
Napping prior to sleep loss may be more effective than napping afterward.
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- Anonymous (2015), REM Sleep stages (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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