Model organism/Catalogs

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An informational catalog, or several catalogs, about Model organism.

Important model organisms

Viruses

Viruses include:

Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes include:

Eukaryotes

Eukaryotes include:

Protists

Fungi

Plants

Animals

Invertebrates
Vertebrates
  • Cavia porcellus, the guinea pig, used by Robert Koch and other early bacteriologists as a host for bacterial infections, hence a byword for "laboratory animal" even though less commonly used today
  • Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) - used for developmental studies, as it is an amniote and excellent for micromanipulation (e.g. tissue grafting) and over-expression of gene products
  • Cat (Felis cattus) - used in neurophysiological research
  • Dog (Canis lupus familiaris) - an important respiratory and cardiovascular model
  • Hamster - first used to study kala-azar (leishmaniasis)
  • Mouse (Mus musculus) - the classic model vertebrate. Many inbred strains exist, as well as lines selected for particular traits, often of medical interest, e.g. body size, obesity, muscularity. (Quantitative genetics, Molecular evolution, Genomics)
  • Homo sapiens (humans) - used in various clinical studies
  • Lamprey - spinal cord research
  • Oryzias latipes, Medaka (the Japanese ricefish) is an important model in developmental biology, and has the advantage of being much sturdier than the traditional Zebrafish
  • Rat (Rattus norvegicus) - particularly useful as a toxicology model; also particularly useful as a neurological model and source of primary cell cultures, owing to the larger size of organs and suborganellar structures relative to the mouse. (Molecular evolution, Genomics)
  • Rhesus macaque - used for studies on infectious disease and cognition
  • Sigmodon hispidus - Cotton rat formerly used in polio research
  • Taeniopygia guttata or zebra finch - used in the study of the song system of songbirds and the study of non-mammalian auditory systems
  • Takifugu rubripres, a pufferfish - has a small genome with little junk DNA
  • Xenopus laevis, the African clawed frog - used in developmental biology because of its large embryos and high tolerance for physical and pharmacological manipulation
  • Zebrafish (Danio rerio), a freshwater fish, has a nearly transparent body during early development, which provides unique visual access to the animal's internal anatomy. Zebrafish are used to study development, toxicology and toxicopathology,[8] specific gene function and roles of signaling pathways.

Model organisms used for specific research objectives

Sexual selection and sexual conflict

Hybrid zones

Ecological genomics

  • Daphnia pulex, an environmental indicator model organism
  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii resources at the Joint Genome Institute
  • Chlamydomonas genome sequenced published in Science, October 12, 2007
  • Rowland H. Davis: Neurospora. Contributions of a Model Organism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000. ISBN 0-19-512236-4.
  • 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 About Arabidopsis on The Arabidopsis Information Resource page (TAIR)
  • 5.0 5.1 Rensing, S. A., Lang, D., Zimmer, A. D., Terry, A., Salamov, A., Shapiro, H. et al. (2008). The physcomitrella genome reveals evolutionary insights into the conquest of land by plants. Science, 319(5859), 64-69.
  • Riddle, Donald L.; Blumenthal, Thomas; Meyer, Barbara J.; and Priess, James R. (Eds.). (1997). C. ELEGANS II. Woodbury, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Press. ISBN 0-87969-532-3. Full text available on-line.
  • Manev H, Dimitrijevic N, Dzitoyeva S. (2003). "Techniques: fruit flies as models for neuropharmacological research.". Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 24 (1): 41–43. DOI:10.1016/S0165-6147(02)00004-4. Research Blogging.
  • Spitsbergen J.M. and Kent M.L. (2003). The state of the art of the zebrafish model for toxicology and toxicologic pathology research—advantages and current limitations. Toxicol Pathol. 31 (Supplement), 62-87. PubMed Abstract Link => PMID 12597434.