From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
- Physics : The study of forces and energies in space and time.
- Chemistry : The science of matter, or of the electrical or electrostatical interactions of matter.
- Thermodynamics : The statistical description of the properties of molecular systems
- Engineering : The profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences gained by study, experience and practice is applied with judgment to develop ways to economically use the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind.
- Calorie : The unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1°C at 1 atmosphere of absolute pressure.
- Celsius : Unit of temperature, defined by a scale in which the melting point of water is set to zero, and the temperature difference between the melting and the boiling points to 100.
- Chemical thermodynamics : The study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics.
- Combustion : A sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames.
- Conduction (heat) : Add brief definition or description
- Convection (heat) : Add brief definition or description
- Count Rumford : (1753–1814) An American born soldier, statesman, scientist, inventor and social reformer.
- Electromagnetic radiation : a collection of electromagnetic waves, usually of different wavelengths.
- Energy (science) : A measurable physical quantity of a system which can be expressed in joules (the metric unit for a quantity of energy) or other measurement units such as ergs, calories, watt-hours or Btu.
- Enthalpy : Energy function of thermodynamic system equal to internal energy plus pV (pressure times volume).
- Erg (unit) : A cgs unit of energy (obsolete); 1 erg = 10−7 joule
- Fahrenheit (unit) : A unit of temperature, defined by the melting point of water being at 32 degrees (°F), and the temperature difference between the melting and the boiling points to 180.
- Heat of combustion : The energy released as heat when a substance undergoes complete combustion with oxygen.
- Infrared radiation : Add brief definition or description
- Internal energy : Energy of a system in absence of interaction of the system with external fields
- James Prescott Joule : Add brief definition or description
- Joule : The SI unit of energy (symbol: J) which is a measure of the capacity to do work or generate heat.
- Julius Robert Mayer : Add brief definition or description
- Kelvin : Unit of temperature, with 0 degrees set to absolute zero and the difference between the melting and boiling points of water being 100 degrees, as with Celsius; one of the seven SI base units.
- Laws of thermodynamics : Laws which describe the specifics for the transport of heat and work in thermodynamic processes.
- Laws of conservation : The laws of science which state that a particular measurable property (or quantity) of an isolated physical system does not change (i.e., is constant) during the course of time.
- Radiation (heat) : Add brief definition or description
- Rankine (unit) : A unit of temperature, defined by absolute zero being at 0 degrees (°R), with 1°R being equal to 1°F (Fahrenheit), i.e. the temperature difference between the melting and the boiling points of water is set to 180.
- Rudolph Clausius : Add brief definition or description
- Specific heat : The ratio of the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a body one degree to that required to raise the temperature of an equal mass of water one degree Celsius.
- Specific heat ratio : The ratio of the specific heat of a gas at constant pressure, , to the specific heat at constant volume, , also sometimes called the adiabatic index or the heat capacity ratio or the isentropic expansion factor.
- Temperature : A fundamental quantity in physics - describes how warm or cold a system is.
- Temperature conversion : The process of transforming values of temperature measured in one unit to values in another unit.
- Work (Physics) : Form of energy transferred to a body by a force.