Eurozone crisis/Timelines

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A timeline (or several) relating to Eurozone crisis.

Credit ratings:
Standard & Poor (S&P) and Fitch Investment grades are AAA, AA, A and BBB; speculative ("junk") grades are BB and B
Moodys Investment grades are Aaa, Aa, A and Baa; speculative ("junk") grades are Ba and B

2006

October: Italy's credit rating downgraded from A+ from AA- by S&P[1]

2007

2008

Crash of 2008

September: The Irish government announces that it will guarantee all deposits in Irish banks - assuming a liability of €440 billion: more than twice Ireland’s gross domestic product[2].

2009

Recession of 2009

January: Anglo Irish Bank nationalised.
The Vienna Initiative[3]
April: Ireland sets up a National Asset Management Agency [4] to operate as a bad bank which acquires toxic debt from banks in return for government bonds.
March: Ireland's credit rating downgraded from AAA to AA+ by S&P
July: European Central Bank implements its covered bond purchase programme[5]
December: Greece's credit rating downgraded from A- to BBB+ by S&P
Greek budget passed - (aims to reduce the budget deficit to 9 per cent of GDP[6]).

2010

January:
Ireland's public debt rises to 65 per cent of GDP
Greece's credit rating downgraded to A- by S&P[7]
February
Germany's central bank president, Axel Weber, decides to resign from the European Central Bank[8]
March:
Greek government introduces a further austerity package[9]
Portugal's credit rating downgraded from AA to A- by Fitch[10]
April
Greece's credit rating downgraded to BB+ by S&P[11]
Spain's credit rating downgraded from AA+ to AA by S&P[12]
Portugal's credit rating downgraded from A+ to A- by S&P[13]
Greece agrees to introduce a €24 billion austerity package[14]
May
Greek riots. Violent protests in Athens[15]
First Greek bailout. After prolonged debate[16], The eurozone and the IMF make available €110 billion to Greece[17]
The eurozone launches a €600bn European Financial Stability Facility [18] [19]
European Central Bank launches its bond buying [20] authorising the purchase of qualifying eurozone government bonds.
June
73 percent of Bloomberg subscribers expect a Greek default[21]
July
Seven banks fail EU stress tests[22]
August:
Ireland's credit rating downgraded to AA- by S&P
IMF/EC review of Greek finances [23]
September:
Further support to Ireland's Anglo Irish Bank, Allied Irish Banks and Irish Nationwide banks
Moodys downgrades Spain to Aa1
October
Draft Greek budget aiming to slash its budget deficit to 7.0 per cent of gross domestic product[24]
EU agree to make changes to the Lisbon Treaty[25] to provide a legal basis for bailouts
November:
21st
The Irish government applies for assistance from the IMF and the EU [26][27]
22nd
Ireland's credit rating downgraded to A by S&P
23rd
The Irish government announces its National Recovery Plan 2011-14 [28] - an additional €15 billion package of measures intended to reduce the budget deficit to below 3% of GDP by 2014 (comprising ⅔ expenditure reductions and ⅓ revenue increases)
26th
Bond yields reach new highs: Irish 9%, Portuguese 7%, Spanish 5%[29]
28th
Agreement is reached on an Ireland rescue package An €85 billion loan facility of which €67½ billion is to come from outside Ireland. €35 billion to support the banking system; (€10 billion for the immediate recapitalisation and the remaining €25 billion will be provided on a contingency basis) and up to €50 billion to cover the financing of the Irish government's budget
30th
Italian and Belgian bond yields rise
December
1st
The European Central Bank buys Portuguese and Irish bonds[30] [31], and there is a fall in their spreads.
3rd
S&P puts Greece on downgrade watch in response to Eurozone proposals to give preferred status to government bondholders.
5th
Two Eurozone ministers propose the issue of a European bond[32] but the idea is opposed by Germany[33]
The Eurozone/IMF bailout of Ireland is conditional upon deleveraging of Ireland's banks[34]
10th
Angela Merkel, German chancellor, and Nicolas Sarkozy, France’s president, call on their eurozone partners to draw a fundamental lesson from its debt crisis and take steps towards political integration[35] .

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2011

January

25th
First bond issue by the European Commission using the European Financial Stability Facility[36]

March

7th
Greek government bonds are downgraded by Moody's to B1 from Ba1, and assigned a negative outlook to the rating.. The report cites conditions attached to eurozone support[37].
23rd
Portuguese Prime Minister José Sócrates resigns after failing to win support for austerity measures.

April

2nd
Spain's Prime Minister Zapatero announces his resignation as leader of the Socialist Party and his intention not to stand at the forthcoming general election[38]
13th
The European Central Bank raises its discount rate from 1.0 per cent to 1.25 per cent[39]
15th
Irish government bonds are downgraded by Moody's to Baa3

May

9th
Eurozone Finance Ministers discuss "soft restructuring" of Greek debt[40]
Greek government bonds are downgraded by S&P frm B to BB-
20th
Portugal bailout Portugal is to get a 3-year IMF/EU 78 billion euro ($110 billion) bailout package[41]
Greek government bonds are downgraded by Fitch from BB+ to B+

June

2nd
Greece has agreed to €6.4 billion additional budget cut[42]
5th
Portugal holds a general election. The ruling Socialist Party is defeated by the Social Democratic Party under Pedro Passos Coelho .

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July

5th
Portugal's government bonds are downgraded by Moody's to Ba2 from Baa1, with negative outlook[43]
9th.
Eurogroup Statement on the follow-up of the 29 June Euro Summit [44].
13th
The European Central Bank raises its discount rate from 1.25 per cent to 1.5 per cent[45].
15th
Italian government adopts a €48 bn austerity package[46]
The European Banking Authority annnounces that eight banks have failed their stress tests and 16 are in the danger zone[47].
21st
Second Greek bailout . It is proposes that Greece should get a €109 billion loan[48] (subject to the agreement of national parliaments), in addition to which the private sector is to make a contribution and agree to either swap or roll-over some Greek government debt.
The European Financial Stability Facility's [49] powers are amended to enable it to help countries not officially in receipt of a bailout and to recapitalise Eurozone banks.
29th
Spain. Prime Minister Zapatero calls a general election for 20th November[50].

August

7th
The ECB buys Spanish and Italian government bonds[51]
16th
President Sarkozy and Chancellor Merkel call for a "true European economic government"[52].
23rd
Spain. Government and opposition parties agree to introduce a constitutional cap on public debt before elections in November[53].
24th
German President questions the legality of ECB bond purchases[54].
30th
ECB bond purchases reduce the price of Spanish and Italian government bonds by 1 per cent[55]

September

7th
Germany's Federal Constitutional Court rule that the 2010 bailout for Greece, and subsequent aid granted through the Financial Stability Facility fund is legal, but that future bailouts would need approval from the German parliament's budget committee[56][57].
8th
European Central Bank chief economist Juergen Stark resigns amid speculation of conflicts within the ECB over its bond-buying programme[58].
14th
European President Jose Manuel Barroso announces that the Commission will soon present options for the introduction of eurozone joint bonds [59][60]
French banks Credit Agricole SA and Societe Generale are downgraded by credit rating agency Moody's from Aa1 to Aa2 and Aa2 to Aa3 respectively because of their exposure to Greek debt[61].
European banks are reported to be losing deposits[62]
European Commission issues a €5 billion 10 year bond to finance a loan for Portugal[63]
15th
Five central banks have announced a co-ordinated move to try to help the financial system[64]
19th
Italian government bonds are downgraded from A+ to A by S&P[65].
20th
The Greek government and the EU/IMF/ECB review team fail to reach an agreement which would allow for the release of the next tranche of bailout funds.
23rd
Reuters reports that, according to the Greek press, Greek Finance Minister Evangelos Venizelos told the Greek parliament yesterday that he sees three scenarios for Greece, including a debt restructuring with 50% write downs for Greek bondholders. The government quickly moved to deny the reports.
European Central Bank Governing Council member Klaas Knot is quoted as saying that the possibility of a Greek government default can no longer be excluded[66]
24th
The IMF and the World Bank undertake to "act collectively to restore confidence and financial stability, and rekindle global growth[67].
A G20 Finance Ministers meeting in Washington is reported to have started to draw up a €3 trillion rescue plan to save Greece and the eurozone from collapse[68].
26th
Germany's Finance Minister Wolfgang Schaeuble is reported to have said that the euro region has no intention to increase the size of the European Financial Stability Facility ( from the current €440 billion [69].
29th
Germany's Bundestag parliament votes 523 to 85 to approve the July 21 proposal to increase the scope of the European Financial Stability Facility[70].

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October

6th
The European Central Bank decides to launch a €40 billion covered bond purchase programme.
10th
Belgium, France and Luxembourg have reached an agreement to rescue the Dexia bank. The Belgian government will buy the bank’s division in Belgium for €4bn. Dexia is also to get state guarantees of up to €90bn in order to secure borrowing over the next ten years, with Belgium providing 60.5% of these guarantees, France 36.5% and Luxembourg 3%[71].
13th
Slovakia is the last of the eurozone countries to give parliamentary approval to the July 21 proposal to expand the EFSF[72].


18th
Spain's bond rating cut to A1, from Aa2 by Moody's[73] , the third of the major agencies to act in recent weeks and taking it a notch below the ratings of Standard & Poor's and Fitch[74].
20th
France and Germany disagree about increasing the amount of the EFSF [75]
26th
Second Greek bailout terms A EU summit agrees a new rescue package, including a 50 percent write-off of the Greek government's debt, a further €130 billion loan, the recapitalisation of eurozone banks, and an increase in the capacity of the European Financial Stability Facility, (EU Summit Statement)
31st
Prime Minister Papandreou announces that Greece is to hold a referendum to decide whether to accept new bailout terms [76]

November

1st
Mario Draghi, former Governor of the Banca d’Italia, takes up his duties as President of the European Central Bank[77]
2nd
Emergency summit. Greek Prime Minister Papandreou agrees that the subject of the referendum should be whether Greece should remain within the eurozone, rather than his proposed question concerning the rescue package.
3rd
Papandreou abandons the plan to hold a referendum.
European Central Bank President Draghi announces a reduction in the bank's discount rate by 25 basis points[78].
5th
Leaders of Greece's political parties agree to form a coalition government under a new Prime Minister [79]
7th
EU finance commisioner calls for signatures to a written acceptance of the terms of the Greek rescue package[80]
8th
Sylvio Berlusconi agrees to resign after parliament approves a budget law that includes reforms demanded by the EU [81], being unable to command a parliamentary majority.
10th
Lucas Papademos becomes Prime Minister of Greece, and is expected to accept the terms of the EU rescue.
12th
Italian parliament votes to approve the Financial Stability Law, signifying acceptance of the requirements recorded in Berlusconi's letter of intent[82].
14th
Mario Monti is appointed Prime Minister of Italy[83].
16th
Mario Monti announces the formation of a government[84] that does not include any elected politicians[85]
23rd
Letter to EU Presidents by Greek New Democracy Party leader Antonis Samaras confirms his party's acceptance of agreed fiscal adjustment targets[86]
29th
Finance Ministers agree on the terms of the leverage extension of the EFSF’s capacity [87]

December

1st
Ireland renews its Bank Guarantee Scheme [88]
5th
Merkel and Sarkozy propose new European Union treaty.
Standard & Poor's credit rating agency places its long-term sovereign ratings on 15 members of the eurozone on "CreditWatch with negative implications", citing continuing disagreements among European policy makers on how to tackle the immediate market confidence crisis [89].
6th
Belgium swears in a new government, ending 541 days of political deadlock[90].
8th
The European Central Bank reduces its discount rates by 0.25 percent[91].
The European Central Bank offers to lend unlimited amounts to eurozone banks for a period of three years at an interest rate of 1 per cent [92].
Ratings On 15 Spanish Banks Placed On CreditWatch Negative Following Similar Rating Action On Spain - by Standard & Poors[93]
9th
A European Union Summit agrees a fiscal compact[[94].


16th
Belgium. Moody's downgrades Belgium's credit ratings from Aa1 to Aa3, negative outlook[95].

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2012

January

12th
Spain and Italy successfully sell about €22bn of government debt at sharply lower costs than at previous auctions[96]
13th
Standard and Poor's downgrade Cyprus, Italy, Portugal, and Spain by two notches, and Austria, France, Malta, Slovakia, and Slovenia, by one notch[97]
Greece. Talks on the proposed debt swap by private creditors, seen as crucial to avoid an unruly Greek default, broke up without agreement[98].
16th
Standard and Poor's downgrade the European Financial Stability Facility[99]
23rd
Euro zone finance ministers reject an offer by private creditors to write down the nominal value of their Greek debt by 50 percent in return for new longer-term bonds paying an interest rate of 4 percent[100].

February

2nd
Survey results show that the eurozone credit crunch intensified in the 4th quarter of 2011[101]
13th
Moody's reduces sovereign debt ratings of selected EU countries including Italy, Spain and Portugal[102]. "in order to reflect their susceptibility to the growing financial and macroeconomic risks emanating from the euro area crisis" and assigns negative prospects to Austria, France and the UK.
20th
Further Greek second bailout terms proposed [103]
27th
Greece ratings lowered to 'SD’ (Selective Default)[104] by Standard & Poors.

March

2nd
25 out of the 27 EU governments sign the "Fiscal Compact" (Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union)[105] , Britain and the Czech Republic abstaining.
Moody's downgrades Greece to C from Ca [106]
14th
Greece: second bailout is approved in principle by eurogroup finance ministers.
30th
Finance Ministers agree to raise the combined lending ceiling of the temporary European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF) and the permanent European Stability Mechanism (ESM) will be raised from €500 billion to €700 billion[107].

April

26th
Spain's long-term government bonds are downgraded to BBB+ from A by Standard & Poors, citing an expected worsening deficit and a need to give financial support to its banks[108].

May

6th
France: François Hollande becomes President
Greece: elections produce a hung parliament that fails to agree on a government

June

11th
Spain €100bn bailout of Spanish banks.
13th
Spain: Moody's downgrades Spain's government bond rating to Baa3 from A3, on review for further downgrade[109] citing the its increase in indebtedness as a result of the bailout, its limited access to the bond market, and the continued weakness of its economy
17th
Greece: narrow election victory of the broadly pro-bailout New Democracy Party [110].
20th
Greece: Antonis Samaras is prime minister, heading a coalition of the conservative New Democracy and socialist PASOK parties.
26th
The European Commission outlines possibilities for the creation of a banking union [111]
29th.
Eurozone summit (Statement) decides "as a matter of urgency", to consider Commission proposals for the establishment of a banking union.

July

12th
Spain:announces spending cuts and tax increases (amounting to around 5¼ per cent of GDP in 2012 and to 2¼ per cent in 2013) in response to a European Council "recommendation" under its excessive deficit procedure [112]. [113]
20th
Spain: Eurogroup grants financial assistance to Spain's banking sector in the form of a loan to the Spanish government[114].
24th
Greece: officials from the troika of international lenders are back in Athens as the three-party government struggles to meet the spending cuts demanded in return for the bailout money.[115]

September

6th
The European Central Bank announces programme of Outright Monetary Transactions [116] involving unlimited purchases on the secondary market of the bonds of those governments that seek "bail-out" assistance from the EU's European Financial Stability Facility/European Stability Mechanism (EFSF/ESM) programmes.
11th
Portugal. An EU/IMF review mission reports that the deficit reduction programme was bradly on track, the recapitalisation of the banking sector is well advanced[117].
12th
The European Commission publishes proposals for a banking union for the eurozone, which would hand new supervisory powers to the European Central Bank, such as the ability to close poorly performing banks[118]. A further development would be to allow distressed banks to draw directly upon the European resources instead calling upon government resources

October

6th
Spain's government denies rumours that it is considering asking for a bailout[119]

November

14th
Spain is relieved of the obligation to take further austerity measures despite being unable to meet EU deficit-reduction targets[120]
19th
France's government bond rating downgraded by Moody's to Aa1 from Aaa [121], citing market rigidities and fiscal uncertainty.
27th
The terms and conditions for further assistance to Greece have been agreed by the IMF/ECB/EU troika [122][123]

December

3rd
Greece's government announces that it is prepared to spend €10 billion on a buyback of its bonds at a premium above the market price[124].
6th
Greece downgraded by Standard & Poor's to SD (selective default)[125] "The offer, in our view, implies the investor will receive less value than the promise of the original securities; and we believe the offer is distressed, rather than purely opportunistic".
11th
Greece completes a €32bn buyback[126] at higher than planned price of 33.5 per cent of nominal.


19th
Greece's ratings raised to 'B-/B' from Selective Default on completion of debt buyback by Standard & Poor's [127]

2013

March

25th
Italy's general election failed to deliver a clear majority in the Senate. The centre-left coalition led by Pier Luigi Bersani won a narrow majority in the Lower House, beating Silvio Berlusconi’s coalition by less than 0.4%. In a major upset, the Five-Star Movement – led by anti-euro comedian Beppe Grillo – emerged as the largest single party in the lower house, with over 25% of support, and the second-largest party in the Senate, where he won 23.8% of votes. Outgoing PM Mario Monti was the biggest loser, with his party getting less than 10% of votes in both houses.