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CZ:Sports Workgroup

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The Citizendium Sports Workgroup
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The Sports workgroup will organise and co-ordinate efforts to create and improve articles relating to Sports. If you are interested in participating, you may add yourself to Category:Sports Authors, discuss issues on the Sports Workgroup Forum, or simply dive in and begin contributing.

Contents

Core articles

Click on the [r] after the first definition below to edit this list of transcluded subtopics.

  • Sports [r]: An activity that involves skill and physical exertion, and is governed by a generally accepted set of rules and guidelines. [e]

The following are core articles for various sports, some of which are individual (e.g., baseball) and some are combined (e.g., skating, skiing). Click on the [r] for related articles and on the [e] to edit the definition.

  • Air sports [r]: Generic term for various types of aeronautical competition. [e]
  • Alpine combined skiing [r]: An event in alpine ski racing which is a combination of downhill and slalom. [e]
  • Alpine skiing [r]: Method of skiing which involves travelling down a slope on skis with fixed heel bindings, in contrast to Nordic skiing. Events are downhill racing, slalom or a combination of the two. [e]
  • American football [r]: A high-contact sport played by two teams of 11 players on a 100-yard field that originated in the United States of America. [e]
  • Aquatics [r]: A term for water sports, subdivided into five distinct branches: swimming, water polo, diving, open water swimming, and synchronized swimming. [e]
  • Archery [r]: An individual sport involving shooting at a target using a bow and arrow. [e]
  • Association football [r]: A sport in which two teams, each consisting of 11 players, compete to move a spherical ball around the playing field and into their opponents' goal; with the exception of the goalkeeper, players may not use their hands or arms to control the ball. [e]
  • Athletics [r]: The collective term for a group of athletic events in walking, running, jumping or throwing. [e]
  • Australian rules football [r]: A form of football involving two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field. Players can kick or handle the ball. [e]
  • Badminton [r]: An indoor game in which players on opposite sides of a net hit a shuttlecock with wire-strung racquets. [e]
  • Bandy [r]: A winter team sport played with hockey sticks and a ball on a frozen field. Combines elements of ice hockey, field hockey and football. [e]
  • Baseball [r]: A ball game, using a small spherical ball and a striker called a bat, played between two teams of 9 players each on a field with a diamond shaped circuit consisting of 4 bases. [e]
  • Basketball [r]: A ball game played between two teams of 5 players, the objective of which is to throw the ball through one of a pair of hoops fixed above each end of the playing court. [e]
  • Basque pelota [r]: Basque ball game played in a walled court with a basket-like racquet attached to the hand. Also the name of the ball. [e]
  • Biathlon [r]: An athletic competition combining the sport activities of cross-country, or Nordic, skiing, and rifle shooting. [e]
  • Billiards [r]: Game for two people using cues and played on a billiard table with three balls. The table, also used for snooker, has six pockets as targets for the balls. [e]
  • Bobsleigh [r]: Sled racing down an ice-covered run using a sledge which is mechanically steered and braked. There are two-men and four-men versions of the sled. [e]
  • Boomerang [r]: Traditionally a piece of wood that was carved and twisted so that when it was thrown correctly it would return to the thrower. [e]
  • Boules [r]: French version of bowls but played with metal balls which are tossed towards the jack (target ball). [e]
  • Bowls [r]: Ancient sport in which players roll weighted balls across a green and aim to place their bowl closest to a target ball. [e]
  • Boxing [r]: A combat sport between two opponents in a roped, square ring who attempt to strike each other with fists enclosed in padded gloves. [e]
  • Canadian football [r]: A variant of American football that is played 12-a-side. [e]
  • Canoeing [r]: Olympic sport which involves racing canoes and kayaks in various disciplines. [e]
  • Chess [r]: Board game for two players played on a checkered board requiring skill, strategy and intellect. [e]
  • Climbing [r]: Generic term for multiple disciplines which involve scaling or ascending steep surfaces using hands and feet. [e]
  • Cricket [r]: An outdoor bat-and-ball game played by two teams of eleven players on a large grassy field. [e]
  • Croquet [r]: A summer ball sport played on a lawn with the object of completing an obstacle course by hitting the ball through the metal hoop obstacles. [e]
  • Cross-country skiing [r]: Skiing across flat or rolling country, as distinguished from downhill skiing; one of the major winter sports in northern and alpine climes. [e]
  • Cue sports [r]: A group of table sports including billiards, pool and snooker in which each player uses a long, tapering wooden rod (a cue) for striking the balls. [e]
  • Curling [r]: A game, invented in Scotland, which involves two teams of four players who slide a heavy stone towards a target at the opposite end of a long, narrow sheet of ice. [e]
  • Cycling [r]: The sport, recreational activity and means of transportation of riding a bicycle. [e]
  • Darts [r]: An indoor game in which flighted missiles called darts are thrown at a dartboard target in order to score points. [e]
  • Dinghy racing [r]: Competitive sport for small boats under sail and, with yacht racing, one of the two main divisions in the sport of sailing. [e]
  • Diving [r]: Sport in which contestants perform acrobatic dives from an elevated board into a pool. Points are awarded by a panel of judges for style and achievement. [e]
  • Downhill racing [r]: In alpine skiing, contestants take turns to race down a mountain slope on skis; they race individually against the clock and the fastest time wins. [e]
  • Dressage [r]: From the French dresser (to train), an equestrian competition in which points are awarded to the horse and rider for artistic riding style. [e]
  • Equestrianism [r]: Collectively, the sports of dressage, show jumping and three-day eventing. [e]
  • Fencing [r]: A sport of fighting with blunted swords in accordance with set rules in order to score points. [e]
  • Field hockey [r]: An outdoor sport that involves the players using a curved stick to move a ball about the field and attempting to score by hitting the ball into the opposing team's goal. [e]
  • Figure skating [r]: A type of ice skating in which the contestant gains points for achieving a combination of movements which must include steps, jumps and turns. [e]
  • Football [r]: Any of a number of team sports which involve kicking and/or handling a ball with the purpose of territorial gain leading to the scoring of goals or points. [e]
  • Gaelic football [r]: An outdoor sport played by two teams of 15 players a side. It is a form of football using a round ball which the players may both handle and kick, with the object of kicking or punching the ball into the goal. [e]
  • Golf [r]: Game in which the players attempt, using special clubs, to sink a small, dimpled ball into each of 18 successive holes in the fewest number of strokes. [e]
  • Gymnastics [r]: An individual, competitive sport involving the performance of acrobatic exercises requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, gracefulness, and kinesthetic awareness. [e]
  • Handball [r]: A game consisting of two teams of seven players each in which a ball is passed by hand with the aim of scoring points by throwing the ball into each other's goal. [e]
  • Hockey [r]: Generic term for various sports in which a ball or puck is hit about a playing surface by teams of players with curved sticks whose aim is to score the most goals in the match. The main variants are field hockey and ice hockey. [e]
  • Horse racing [r]: The sport of racing thoroughbred horses ridden by jockeys over set distances [e]
  • Hurling [r]: Outdoor team sport similar to field hockey but played with a shorter stick which has a broader oval plate. An Irish game that is related to the Scottish Highland game of shinty. [e]
  • Ice dancing [r]: A form of ice skating performed to music which incorporates choreographed dance moves based on the tune being played. [e]
  • Ice hockey [r]: A game, played on ice, which consists of two teams of six players, each attempting to drive a small hard rubber disc called a puck into their opponent's goal net. [e]
  • Ice skating [r]: Skating on ice wearing a boot with a blade attached to the sole (a skate). Disciplines include figure skating, ice dancing and speed skating. [e]
  • Judo [r]: An unarmed combat sport of Japanese origin in which a contestant uses holds and leverage to unbalance their opponent. [e]
  • Karate [r]: From the Japanese word meaning "empty hand", a form of unarmed combat in which hands and feet are used to deliver and block blows. In competition, all blows must fall short. [e]
  • Lacrosse [r]: Outdoor team sport for ten players (men) or twelve players (women), each of whom uses a netted stick (the crosse) in order to pass and catch a hard rubber ball with the aim of scoring goals by propelling the ball into the opposition goal. [e]
  • Luge [r]: A small sled on which the contestant lies supine (face up, feet first). A race is against the clock down an ice-covered run. [e]
  • Martial arts [r]: Codified systems of both armed and weaponless, or empty-handed, skills intended to develop and increase proficiency in combat. [e]
  • Modern pentathlon [r]: A multi-discipline sport designed for the Olympic Games. [e]
  • Motor racing [r]: A form of racing that involves the use of motor cars aka automobiles on closed circuits or closed public roads [e]
  • Multi-sport events [r]: A gathering of athletes in one place over a period of one to several days for the purpose of entering into competition. [e]
  • Netball [r]: A seven-a-side game in which goals are scored by throwing the ball into and through a raised netted hoop. [e]
  • Nordic combined skiing [r]: A winter sport taking place over two to three days in which athletes compete in both cross-country skiing and ski jumping. [e]
  • Nordic skiing [r]: Method of skiing which involves travelling across flat or rolling country on skis with unfixed heel bindings, in contrast to Alpine skiing. Events include cross-country racing, ski jumping and a combination of the two. [e]
  • Olympic Games [r]: A quadrennial multi-sport event organised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) involving athletes from around the world in both summer and winter sport editions. The summer event was first staged at Athens in 1896 as a revival of the Ancient Olympics; the winter event was first staged at Chamonix in 1924. [e]
  • Paralympic Games [r]: A multi-sport event organised by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) for athletes with physical, mental and sensorial disabilities. They are held shortly after the Olympic Games, the first official occasion being after the 1960 Rome Summer Olympics. [e]
  • Polo [r]: A team sport played on horseback with the object of scoring goals. [e]
  • Pool [r]: A game for two players using cues on a small billiard table with two sets of seven numbered balls, one black ball (the last to be potted) and one white cue ball. [e]
  • Racquetball [r]: An indoor ball game played with a short-handled racket on a four-walled court. [e]
  • Rowing [r]: Both an Olympic-level sport and the act of manually propelling a small boat by using oars. [e]
  • Rugby league [r]: A form of rugby football played in teams of thirteen. It began in 1895 as a breakaway sport from rugby union on the issue of professionalism. [e]
  • Rugby union [r]: The original form of rugby football played in teams of fifteen. It was strictly amateur until 1995 when it opened up to professionalism. [e]
  • Sailing [r]: Craft propulsion by means of the wind acting upon a hoisted sail. In sport, a generic term for several disciplines broadly divided between dinghy racing and yacht racing. [e]
  • Shinty [r]: A Scottish Highland outdoor sport for two teams of twelve and resembling field hockey, though with taller goalposts. It is believed to be derived from the Irish sport of hurling. [e]
  • Shooting [r]: A collection of sports broadly sub-divided by the type of gun being used (i.e., pistol, rifle, shotgun). [e]
  • Show jumping [r]: An equestrian discipline in which horse and rider operate in an arena to gain points by jumping fences and other obstacles. [e]
  • Skateboarding [r]: Sport in which the contestant stands on a skateboard to ride an obstacle course. [e]
  • Skating [r]: A collection of sports that are broadly sub-divided into ice skating and roller skating. [e]
  • Skeleton [r]: A small sled on which the contestant lies face down, head first. A race is against the clock down an ice-covered run. [e]
  • Ski jumping [r]: Winter sport in which the skier travels down a manufactured steep slope which levels off at the bottom so that the skier's momentum enables a leap through the air onto a lesser slope below. The winning contestant is the one making the longest jump. [e]
  • Skiing [r]: Various means of travelling over snow with the aid of skis which are bound to the foot using a special boot; in sporting terms the main classifications are alpine skiing and Nordic skiing. [e]
  • Slalom skiing [r]: An alpine skiing race down a winding slope which is marked out by poles. There are three disciplines (slalom, giant slalom and super giant slalom) determined by the distance between the markers. [e]
  • Sledging [r]: A generic term for winter sports using sleds, sledges or sleighs. [e]
  • Snooker [r]: A cue sport played on a billiard table in which a white cue ball is used to pot the other balls in a set order. The name is a term used in the game itself for a situation in which the player has no direct shot at his designated target ball. [e]
  • Softball [r]: A modified form of baseball, played on a smaller field and using a larger ball which is thrown with an underhanded motion; exists in two forms, slow pitch and fastpitch. [e]
  • Speed skating [r]: Winter sport involving direct competition between contestants who race against each other on skates over a set distance. [e]
  • Speedway [r]: A form of motorcycle racing in which the riders race against each other by completing laps around an oval dirt track. [e]
  • Sport [r]: An activity that involves skill and physical exertion, and is governed by a generally accepted set of rules and guidelines. [e]
  • Squash [r]: A game in which two players use racquets to hit a small, soft rubber ball against the walls of a closed court. [e]
  • Sumo [r]: Japanese form of heavyweight wrestling. [e]
  • Surfing [r]: Sport in which the contestant stands or lies on a surfboard to ride the crest of a shore-bound wave. [e]
  • Swimming [r]: The act of propelling oneself through water by body movement alone. [e]
  • Table tennis [r]: Indoor sport based on lawn tennis. [e]
  • Taekwondo [r]: Korean martial art similar to karate. [e]
  • Tennis [r]: A sport played on a hard-surfaced rectangular court, between either two players or two teams of two players each, in which the players attempt to strike a hollow rubber ball, using a stringed raquet, over a net into the opponent's half of the court. [e]
  • Tenpin bowling [r]: A sport in which a bowler attempts to knock down skittles at the end of a bowling lane. [e]
  • Thai boxing [r]: Martial art and combat sport characterised by its concentration on stand-up and clinch striking. [e]
  • Three-day eventing [r]: An equestrian combined event in which horse and rider complete the three disciplines of dressage, cross-country riding and show jumping. [e]
  • Trampolining [r]: A gymnastic event in which contestants perform acrobatics on a trampoline to gain points. [e]
  • Triathlon [r]: An endurance athletic competition involving running, cycling, and swimming. [e]
  • Tug of war [r]: A contest in which two teams pull at opposite ends of a rope until one team is dragged over a central line. [e]
  • Volleyball [r]: A game consisting of two teams of six players each in which a large ball is struck by hand over a high net with the aim of preventing the opposing team from returning the ball before it strikes the ground. [e]
  • Water polo [r]: A team sport played in water with the object of scoring the most goals. [e]
  • Water skiing [r]: A surface water sport in which a motor-powered boat pulls an individual on skis who grips the end of a tow cable in order to skim the surface of the water. [e]
  • Weightlifting [r]: Olympic sport in which the contestant lifts a weighted barbell by various means. [e]
  • Wrestling [r]: A form of unarmed combat involving close physical contact which is primarily a sport. [e]
  • Yacht racing [r]: A recreational water vehicle, which either may be of specific types used in sailing races, or a general term for a luxury private vessel [e]