User:Nick Gardner

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Nick Gardner has passed away


I am long retired after successive careers as a flight test observer, as a professional engineer, and as an economist. I have worked in two industrial companies, a research establishment and four government departments; and I have served as economic adviser to four cabinet ministers. As an engineer I was engaged in aeronautical research and development including the development of new manufacturing processes, I took part in the Concorde project and I visited the Apollo project. As an economist I evaluated numerous aerospace projects, I played a part in the development of UK competition policy and I managed a major statistical series. During my working life I contributed to several professional journals and symposiums on subjects including spotwelding, launching aid and project management, and since retirement I have written several books. One was a book on contemporary economic history and another on competition policy that was published in three editions. My latest book Mistakes – how they have happened and how some might be avoided was published in 2007. My writing activity since that date has been confined to Citizendium, and I have become Citizendium's most frequent contributor.

I now have advanced metastatic prostate cancer, and I have decided to use the limited time left to me to create a second edition of "Mistakes" (as an ebook). My CZ contributions from now on will be limited to brief updates of the current affairs articles.

CZ activities


I became a member of the Editorial Council in 2011.


My early hopes of collaboration on articles with fellow-economists have been disappointed, but my early aim of filling in the gaps in CZ's coverage of the basics of economics has been met - apart from some tidying-up. However, I have since realised that people have a need for clarification of ongoing events, of a sort that is not fully available from the other media, or from paper encylopedias - a need that Citizendium is well placed to supply. I have found the task of keeping such articles abreast of current developments to be a demanding one, that leaves little time for other CZ activities.


I have taken the view that Citizendium's main function is to serve the needs of educated laymen and that material on the main page should be confined to matter that such readers can understand.


Citizendium's subpage format enables the otherwise confusingly three-dimensional character of articles that have a global reach to be dealt with by:-
(a) an accessible overview on the main page for the benefit of the general reader (supported by statistics, theoretical analysis and diagrams on subpages for the benefit of the more sophisticated);
(b) a blow-by-blow chronology on the Timelines subpage with hyperlinks to contemporary accounts to enable researchers to follow up on matters that are too detailed for inclusion in the main page; and,
(c) a country-by-country account on the Addendum subpage to provide a chronologically coherent account of national developments (such as would be a distracting interruption of the account of global interactions were it placed on the main page.)

I see as an advantage of this format, that it makes a Citizendium article look unlike a Wikipedia article - signalling a different approach, rather than an attempt to compete

I have used that format in Great Recession, Eurozone crisis, Arab Spring and other articles.


I have made substantial contributions to more than 80 CZ articles, of which 5 have been approved. Few have attracted much talk page comment, but many score an above-average number of hits (the figure in [] brackets is the number of thousands of hits to the nearest thousand)..

  • Developed Article antitrust: a policy to limit or prevent the creation of monopoly power and to preserve competition by regulating business conduct. [e]
  • Developing Article applied statistics: the practice of collecting and interpreting numerical observations for the purpose of generating information. [e]
  • Developed Article Arab Spring: Protest movements in the Arab world that seek the removal of oppressive governments. [e] [5]
  • Stub balance of payments: an accounting statement for the transactions of a country with the rest of the world. [e]
  • Developed Article banking: the system of financial intermediation that provides the principle source of credit to individuals and companies. [e][4]
  • Developed Article bank failures and rescues: an account of the occurrence , causes and consequences of bank failures, and of methods of dealing with them [e]
  • Stub Bank for International Settlements: A forum of central bank governors and senior executives for the discussion and policy analysis whose standing committees include the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. [e]
  • Developed Article Tony Blair: Former Labour Party politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1997-2007). [e][14]
  • Developing Article Gordon Brown: Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party from June 2007 to May 2010; previously Chancellor of the Exchequer from May 1997. [e]
  • Developed Article comparative advantage: The motive for trade that arises from the fact that for each trader there are things that he does best, and things that he can better obtain by trading. [e]
  • Developed Article competition: In economics, the attribute of a market that is characterised by the closeness of its approach to the ideal of perfect competition in which no supplier is able to influence the price of its products. [e]
  • Approved Article competition policy: Legislation which regulates business practices that restrict competition, and limits the ability of firms to combine in such a way as to enable them to restrict competition. [e]
  • Developed Article crash of 1929: the sharp fall in prices on the New York Stock Exchange that contributed to the severity of the Great Depression [e]
  • Developed Article crash of 2008: the international banking crisis that followed the subprime mortgage crisis of 2007. [e]
  • Developing Article credit rating agency: Rating which assesses the credit worthiness of a corporation's debt issues, and is a financial indicator to potential investors of debt securities such as bonds. [e]
  • Developing Article debt: The outcome of an agreement between a person or organisation wishing to make immediate use of resources, and one wishing to defer their use. [e]
  • Stub deflation: a persistent sequence of reductions in the general level of prices. [e]
  • Developing Article discount rate: (i) The percentage by which current value exceeds value in a year's time. (ii) The rate at which banks may borrow at their central bank's discount window. [e]
  • Approved Article economics: The analysis of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. [e]
  • Developed Article economic efficiency: Ratio of the quantity of some measure of output to the quantity of input required to bring it about. [e]
  • Developing Article elasticity (economics): The ratio of the percent change in one variable to the percent change in another variable. [e]
  • Developing Article employment: Human activity directed to the production of goods and services. [e]
  • Developing Article EU competition policy: A policy intended to ensure undistorted competition within the EU market, by increasing economic efficiency in member states and to remove barriers to trade between member states. [e]
  • Approved Article Europe: Sixth largest continent; area 10,000,000 km2; pop. 720,000,000 [e]
  • Developing Article European Union: Political and economic association of 28 European states. [e]
  • Developing Article Eurozone: The member states of the European Union that use the euro as their common currency (Belgium, Germany¸ Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Cyprus, Luxembourg, Malta, The Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia, and Finland) [e]
  • Developed Article Eurozone crisis: A financial crisis involving member countries of the Eurozone [e][14]
  • Developed Article financial economics: the economics of investment choices made by individuals and corporations, and their consequences for the economy, . [e]
  • Stub Financial Stability Forum: An international economic group consisting of representatives of national financial authorities including finance ministers, central bankers, and senior members of other financial organisations. [e]
  • Developed Article financial system: The interactive system of organisations that serve as intermediaries between lenders and borrowers. [e][6]
  • Developing Article financial regulation: a regime that has the purpose of promoting the stability of banks and other financial institutions and the purpose of preserving the integrity of the financial system. [e]
  • Developing Article fiscal policy: Policy concerning public expenditure, taxation and borrowing and the provision of public goods and services, and their effects upon social conduct, the distribution of wealth and the level of economic activity. [e][4]
  • Stub gold standard: a currency system in which a country's central bank is required to exchange, on demand, any currency unit for a stipulated quantity of gold. [e]
  • Stub Government Sponsored Enterprises: Legal entity created by the United States Congress to assist certain groups of borrowers such as homeowners, farmers, ranchers, and mortgage lenders gain access to capital markets. [e]
  • Developed Article Great Depression: the severe downturn in economic activity that started in 1929 in Germany and the United States and affected many other countries. [e][8]
  • Developing Article Great Depression in Britain: The Depression as it affected the United Kingdom. [e]
  • Developing Article Great Depression in the United States: an account of the origins of the Great Depression of 1929 - 1937. [e]
  • Developed Article Great Recession: The disruption of economic activity that began with a downturn in 2007 and generated international repercussions that continued through 2012 and into 2013. [e][5]
  • Stub gross domestic product: The total of the outputs recorded in a country’s national income accounts. [e]
  • Stub Group of Twenty: An informal group of twenty industrialised countries. [e]
  • Developing Article G20 summit: A meeting of the leaders of the twenty countries that are the largest in terms of economic output. [e]
  • Approved Article history of economic thought: the historical development of economic thinking. [e][5]
  • Developed Article history of political thought: The development of political ideas over time since the discovery of politics in Plato, Confucius and Mencius. [e]
  • History of the United Kingdom: Add brief definition or description[4]
  • Developing Article House of Commons (United Kingdom): The primary legislative chamber of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. [e]
  • Stub House of Lords: The second chamber of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. [e]
  • Developing Article Human rights: Natural civil and political rights considered universal and applicable to all human beings worldwide. [e]
  • Stub inflation: An increase in the general level of the prices of goods and services. [e]
  • Approved Article international economics: The study of the patterns and consequences of transactions and interactions between the inhabitants of different countries, including trade, investment and migration. [e] [5]
  • Stub International Monetary Fund: International organization that oversees the global financial system by stabilizing international exchange rates and facilitating development, and offering highly leveraged loans mainly to poorer countries. [e]
  • Developing Article IS-LM model: Model of simultaneous equilibrium in the product and money markets - shown graphically as two intersecting interest rate/spending graphs, one depicting the investment/savings (I/S) relation and the other the liquidity/money (L/M) supply relation (also known as the Hicks-Hansen model). [e]
  • London: Capital city of the United Kingdom (pop. 7,556,900). [e][5]
  • Developed Article macroeconomics: The study of the behaviour of the principal economic aggregates, treating the national economy as an open system. [e]
  • Developed Article Karl Marx: 19th century philosopher and economist. Creator of a theoretical foundation for Communism. [e]+
  • Approved Article microeconomics: A branch of economics that deals with transactions between suppliers and consumers, acting individually or in groups. [e]
  • Developing Article microfinance: The provision of small-scale finance to peopie who are unable to obtain it from conventional sources. [e]
  • Developing Article mistakes: Misguided decisions. [e]
  • Stub money supply: the economy's stock of those assets that can be quickly exchanged for goods and services. [e]
  • Developing Article monetarism: a theory that explains inflation as the inevitable consequence of an increase in the money supply. [e]
  • Developing Article monetary policy: The economic policy instrument that is regularly used to stabilise the economy, and that has sometimes been used as a temporary expedient to relieve severe credit shortages. [e] [4]
  • Developed Article national Debt: the accumulated net borrowings of a country's government, or of its public sector. [e]
  • Developing Article New Deal: The name President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs between 1933–1938 with the goal of relief, recovery and reform of the United States economy during the Great Depression. [e]
  • Stub Parliament of the United Kingdom: The supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom its territories. [e]
  • Developed Article politics: Activity that relates to the way in which society is governed, and the process by which human beings living in communities make decisions and establish obligatory values for its members. [e]
  • Developing Article political party: An organization that seeks to advance the interests of its members by obtaining political power [e]
  • Developed Article philosophy of economics: an account of the logical processes by which the intellectual discipline of economics has been constructed. [e]
  • Developing Article price index: Normalised average (typically a weighted average) of prices for a given class of goods or services in a given region, during a given interval of time. [e]
  • Developed Article production function: A mathematical representation of the relation between inputs and outputs in a production process. The special case of diminishing returns forms an essential part of equilibrium theory. [e]
  • Developing Article public expenditure: Spending by the public sector [e]
  • Stub public good: Products and services that can only be collectively financed because it is not feasible to require individual users to pay for using them. [e]
  • Stub recession (economics): Conventionally defined as two consecutive quarters of negative growth of gross domestic product (except in the United States). [e]
  • Developing Article recession of 2008: the international recession that was triggered by the Crash of 2008. [e]
  • Approved Article social capital: Productive assets arising out of social relations, such as trust, cooperation, solidarity, social networks of relations and those beliefs, ideologies and institutions that contribute to production of goods. [e]
  • Developing Article sovereign default: The failure of a government to comply with its interest payment or debt repayment obligations. [e]
  • Developed Article subprime mortgage crisis: financial crisis arising from defaults on the United States mortgage markets. [e][4]
  • Developed Article supply and demand: The explanation in economic theory of the factors that influence the supply of, and the demand for, goods and services; and of the market mechanisms by which they are reconciled. [e]
  • Stub taxation: The transfer of resources from the community to the government. [e][5]
  • Stub terms of trade: The ratio of the index of a country's export prices to the index of its import prices. [e]
  • Developed Article Washington Consensus: An interpretation of the conditions required by the International Monetary Fund for financial assistance to developing countries. [e]
  • Developing Article welfare economics: The study of the social desireability of alternative arrangements of economic activity and alternative allocations of resources. [e]
  • Stub World Bank: Collective name for the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and its affiliates: the International Finance Corporation, organized in 1950 to provide long-term project financing to developing countries; and the International Development Association, formed in 1960 to make long-term loans at low interest rates. [e]
Nick, which of those would you like considered for approval. Anthony.Sebastian 17:11, 7 March 2012 (UTC)
Anthony, Rather a lot, I'm afraid. There's a list of economics articles ready for approval at CZ: Ready for approval#Economics with stars to suggest priority. Apart from the economics articles, I would like you to give priority to Europe, History of the United Kingdom and the group of 3 recently-completed articles on Parliament of the United Kingdom, House of Commons (United Kingdom) and House of Lords. Nick Gardner 10:26, 8 March 2012 (UTC)
Nick, I can get the Approval Process started for those. To avoid interminable delays, will you suggest Editors in the relevant Workgroups whom I can contact to review and support the nomination for Approval if they have no objections.
As I begin this job as Approval Manager, finding Editors in relevant Workgroups willing to review and support nominations for Approval, the most difficult aspect. Your recommendations will greatly help. Anthony.Sebastian 20:23, 8 March 2012 (UTC)
The lack of active editors is the reason for the fact that few of my articles have been considered for approval. Since I am the only economics editor, I suppose the economics articles can't be considered. As for the others, the only politics and history editors that I have known to be active were Roger Lohman and Russell D Jones respectively, but I have seen no signs of CZ activity from either of them in the past year. Perhaps you can cajole them into action. I respect them both. Good luck! Nick Gardner 20:54, 8 March 2012 (UTC)

Easily lost links

CZ: Ready for approval#Economics

CZ: The Editor Role

CZ:Markup tags for partial transclusion of selected text in an article

CZ:Article Deletion Policy CZ:Upload