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 Definition A synthetic central nervous system stimulant which is used, today, to treat limited medical disorders. [d] [e]
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 Workgroup categories Chemistry and Health Sciences [Categories OK]
 Subgroup category:  Biochemistry
 Talk Archive none  English language variant Not specified

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Inexistant drugbox moved from the main space. To reconsider, whether it pays for itself. Template:Drugbox

I would like to make this article a little more readable and a little less complacent about recreational drug use of amphetamine, which is a major drug of abuse. Nancy Sculerati 15:46, 31 March 2007 (CDT) Also, to make it accurate from a medical standpoint. For example, a current indication for amphetamine is to help rehabilitate patients with traumatic brain injury who have depressed conciousness-not mentioned at all here. will add references below, for discussion and for article. Nancy Sculerati 17:04, 31 March 2007 (CDT)

Annotated references

Srisurapanont M. Jarusuraisin N. Kittirattanapaiboon P. Treatment for amphetamine withdrawal. [Review] [21 refs] [Journal Article. Review] Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. (4):CD003021, 2001. UI: 11687170

Shippenberg TS. Chefer VI. Zapata A. Heidbreder CA. Modulation of the behavioral and neurochemical effects of psychostimulants by kappa-opioid receptor systems. [Review] [73 refs] [Journal Article. Review] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 937:50-73, 2001 Jun. UI: 11458540

ones S. Gutlerner JL. Addictive drugs modify excitatory synaptic control of midbrain dopamine cells. [Review] [50 refs] [Journal Article. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't. Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.. Review] Neuroreport. 13(2):A29-33, 2002 Feb 11. UI: 11893925

Niculescu AB 3rd. Kelsoe JR. Convergent functional genomics: application to bipolar disorder. [Review] [33 refs] [Journal Article. Review] Annals of Medicine. 33(4):263-71, 2001 May. UI: 11405548

Dekhuijzen PN. Machiels HA. Heunks LM. van der Heijden HF. van Balkom RH. Athletes and doping: effects of drugs on the respiratory system.[see comment]. [Review] [90 refs] [Journal Article. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't. Review] Thorax. 54(11):1041-6, 1999 Nov. UI: 10525566

Chaudhuri C. Salahudeen AK. Massive intracerebral hemorrhage in an amphetamine addict. [Review] [23 refs] [Case Reports. Journal Article. Review] American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 317(5):350-2, 1999 May. UI: 10334124

Berger PA. Biochemistry and the schizophrenia. Old concepts and new hypothesis. [Review] [110 refs] [Journal Article. Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.. Review] Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease. 169(2):90-9, 1981 Feb. UI: 7009786

Badiani A. Robinson TE. Drug-induced neurobehavioral plasticity: the role of environmental context.[see comment]. [Review] [146 refs] [Journal Article. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't. Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.. Review] Behavioural Pharmacology. 15(5-6):327-39, 2004 Sep. UI: 15343056


Pirisino R. Galeotti N. Livi S. Raimondi L. Ghelardini C. 4-methyl benzylamine stimulates food consumption and counteracts the hypophagic effects of amphetamine acting on brain Shaker-like Kv1.1 channels. [Journal Article. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't] British Journal of Pharmacology. 147(2):218-24, 2006 Jan. UI: 16284626

attention deficit disorder

Dopheide JA. ASHP therapeutic position statement on the appropriate use of medications in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in pediatric patients. [Journal Article] American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. 62(14):1502-9, 2005 Jul 15. UI: 15998933(excerpt from abstract: Strong evidence from controlled clinical trials in elementary-school-age children supports the superior efficacy of stimulant therapy over nonpharmacologic interventions.4–7 Atomoxetine and bupropion are considered second-line agents and have been effective in placebo-controlled trials. Their use may be appropriate in select patients.8,9 Tricyclic antidepressants are considered second- or third-line agents because of the risk of toxicity, while clonidine and guanfacine should be considered fourth-line or as adjunctive treatment because of the lack of established efficacy as monotherapy.9,10 (excerpt from article:Several reviews and meta-analyses document the short-term efficacy of methylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, mixed amphetamine salts, and pemoline in reducing the core symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity associated with ADHD (Table 1).2,7,20 Sixty to eighty percent of adolescents and adults and at least 80% of children will respond to stimulants when initiated and adjusted appropriately. There is no evidence showing that one stimulant has superior efficacy over another. Because of the risk of hepatotoxicity, pemoline should be used only if all other stimulant and nonstimulant preparations are ineffective.7,9,10


Sekine Y. Ouchi Y. Takei N. Yoshikawa E. Nakamura K. Futatsubashi M. Okada H. Minabe Y. Suzuki K. Iwata Y. Tsuchiya KJ. Tsukada H. Iyo M. Mori N. Brain serotonin transporter density and aggression in abstinent methamphetamine abusers. [Comparative Study. Journal Article. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't] Archives of General Psychiatry. 63(1):90-100, 2006 Jan. UI: 16389202

production of apparent psychosis

Krystal JH. Perry EB Jr. Gueorguieva R. Belger A. Madonick SH. Abi-Dargham A. Cooper TB. Macdougall L. Abi-Saab W. D'Souza DC. Comparative and interactive human psychopharmacologic effects of ketamine and amphetamine: implications for glutamatergic and dopaminergic model psychoses and cognitive function. [Clinical Trial. Comparative Study. Journal Article. Randomized Controlled Trial. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't. Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.. Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.] Archives of General Psychiatry. 62(9):985-94, 2005 Sep. UI: 16143730

Gerber DJ. Tonegawa S. Psychotomimetic effects of drugs--a common pathway to schizophrenia?. [Journal Article] New England Journal of Medicine. 350(10):1047-8, 2004 Mar 4. UI: 14999118

characteristics of amphetamine abuse

increased HIV (+) rate

Buchacz K. McFarland W. Kellogg TA. Loeb L. Holmberg SD. Dilley J. Klausner JD. Amphetamine use is associated with increased HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in San Francisco. [Journal Article] AIDS. 19(13):1423-4, 2005 Sep 2. UI: 16103774