Scotland/Catalogs/Kings and Queens

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The first king of Scotland is generally considered to be Kenneth MacAlpin in the 9th century. He united two kingdoms, the Picts and Dalriada. Almost two hundred years later, Malcolm II added the kingdom of Strathclyde to form something close to the modern boundaries. The kingdoms of England and Scotland had shared the same monarch since James VI of Scotland inherited the throne of England on the death of Elizabeth I. Briefly, under Oliver Cromwell's Protectorate, England and Scotland were joined as one state. This broke apart with the reinstatement of Charles II. It was not until the reign of Queen Anne at the beginning of the 18th century that England and Scotland would be joined to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain.

Early monarchs

Date of Reign Name Comment
*843-859 Kenneth I MacAlpin United Dalriada & Picts
*858-862 Donald I
*862-877 Constantine I
*877-878 Aed
*878-889 Eochaid
*878-889 Giric
*889-900 Donald II
*900-943 Constantine II
*943-954 Malcolm I
*954-962 Indulf
*962-966 Dubh the Black
*966--971 Cullen
*971-995 Kenneth II
*995-997 Constantine III
*997-1005 Kenneth III
*1005-1034 Malcolm II Added Strathclyde.
*1034-1040 Duncan I
*1040-1057 Macbeth
*1057-1058 Lulach
*1058-1093 Malcolm III Canmore
*Nov 1093-May 1094 Donald III Bane
*May 1094-Nov 1094 Duncan II
*Nov 1094 -Oct 1097 Donald III Bane
*1097-1107 Edgar Gave western isles to Norway for peace.
*1107-1124 Alexander I
*1124-1153 David I
*1153-1165 Malcolm IV the Maiden
*1165-1214 William I the Lion
*1214-1249 Alexander II
*1249-1286 Alexander III
*1286-1290 Margaret Maid of Norway
*1292-1296 John Baliol

House of Bruce

Date of Reign Name Comment
*1306-1329 Robert I/Robert VIII de Bruce Confirmed independence at Northampton 1328.
*June 7, 1329-Feb 22, 1371 David II

House of Stewart (Scotland)

Date of Reign Name Comment
*1371-1390 Robert II First of the Stewart sovereigns.
*April 19, 1390-1406 Robert III/John Stewart
*1406-1437 James I
*1437-1460 James II
*1460-June 11, 1488 James III
*1488-1513 James IV
*1513-1542 James V
*1542-1567 Mary I Queen of Scots Forced to abdicate. Executed in England in 1587.
*1567-1625 James VI (James I/Eng.)
*1625-1649 Charles I
*1649-1651 Charles II


Date of Reign Name Comment
*1651-1653 Commonwealth
*1653-1658 Oliver Cromwell Protectorate
*1658-1659 Richard Cromwell Protectorate

House of Stuart restored

Date of Reign Name Comment
*1660-1685 Charles II
*1685-1689 James VII James II of England until 1688
*1689-1694 William and Mary (jointly)
*1694-1702 William II (sole monarch) William III of England
*1702-1714 Anne


The dates of many early monarchs are uncertain by a year or so.

The situation in the period 878-89 is uncertain. The throne may have been occupied by Eochaid, or Giric, or both, either jointly or successively.

Amlaib seems to have been a rival king during part of the reign of Kenneth II.

In 1290, the death of Queen Margaret ended the legitimate descendants of her great-great-grandfather. Twelve distant and/or illegitimate cousins, as well as her father, Eric X of Norway, claimed the throne. To avoid a civil war, it was agreed the matter should be referred to Edward I of England, as nominal overlord. He in turn referred it to his judges, who eventually decided in favour of John Baliol. This explains the interregnum.

In 1296, Edward I of England invaded Scotland, deposed King John, and annexed Scotland to the English crown. Over the ensuing period, there were a number of rebellions, and English power in Scotland was effectively ended by the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314.

In 1332, Edward Baliol was proclaimed and crowned king in opposition to David II. He ruled varying amounts of Scotland for various periods from then till 1356.

After the English army executed Charles I in 1649, Charles II was proclaimed king of Scots. In 1650, England declared war and invaded Scotland. In 1651, Charles II was crowned king of Scots and counter-invaded England. He was defeated and escaped to the continent. The remaining Scottish armies were mopped up by the end of the year, and Scotland was annexed by the English republic ("commonwealth").

In 1689, after King James had been removed from the English throne and replaced by William and Mary, the Scottish Parliament declared he had forfeited the Scottish throne.

His son may have been crowned as James VIII in 1716, and his forces controlled most of Scotland in 1745-6.

The first Scottish monarch known to have used a number is David II. The numbering of earlier monarchs is retrospective. Monarchs do not usually call themselves "the First", such designations being added retrospectively when another monarch of the same name succeeds. It should also be noted that the old Celtic names have not recurred since numbering was introduced, so their numbering is not established by precedent. The convention followed here is that used by recent generations of Scottish historians, and by the royal website, which starts from the union of the Picts and Scots.

Spellings of some early monarchs have been modernized.