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Politics/Related Articles

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A list of Citizendium articles, and planned articles, about Politics.
See also changes related to Politics, or pages that link to Politics or to this page or whose text contains "Politics".

This is a selection. See the politics workgroup for a complete list.

Parent Topics


Review articles


  • Developing Article Authority: Derived from the Latin word auctoritas: the power or right to make rules or laws. [e]
  • Stub Anarchy: (from Greek word anarkhos)The absence of government or other political authority. [e]
  • Autocracy: Government by a single, supreme leader. A modern version of Aristotle's "rule by one", generally seen as different from monarchy, but closely related to dictatorship and, even some forms of oligarchy. Thus, Syria was, until recently, seen as a monarchy while Egypt under Mubarek was an autocracy. [e]
  • Stub Bureaucracy: Collective organizational structure, procedures, protocols and set of regulations in place to manage activity, usually in large organizations and government. [e]
  • Developing Article Citizenship: A formal relationship between a citizen and a particular social, political, national or international community [e]
  • Developing Article Civil law: A system of law which starts with abstract rules, which judges must then apply to the various cases before them. [e]
  • Developing Article Civil rights: Rights considered inherent to members of a society, the arbitrary deprivation of which is subject to enforcement action [e]
  • Approved Article Civil society: The space for social activity outside the market, state and household; the arena of uncoerced collective action around shared interests, purposes and values. [e]
  • Stub Common law: Ancient law of England, and in countries colonized by Britain, based upon societal customs and recognized and enforced by the judgments and decrees of the courts. [e]
  • Stub Community: Generally, a group of organisms sharing an environment. In human communities the shared environment may be defined by mutual interests, pooled resources, common beliefs, shared pursuits, perceived needs, or other common traits or characteristics, and may be associated with a shared identity which in the case of physical communities may include a sense of place. [e]
  • Conflict: Contestation between rival interests or forces, particularly those involving disagreements over resources. Conflict may characterize types of contest from games, contests and competition to law suits, fights, battles and wars. In the social sciences, conflict is often contrasted with competition or cooperation. [e]
  • Developing Article Conflict of interest: Situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. [e]
  • Stub Country: Nation, state, region, or territory, or large tract of land distinguishable by features of topography, biology, or culture. [e]
  • Developing Article Debt: The outcome of an agreement between a person or organisation wishing to make immediate use of resources, and one wishing to defer their use. [e]
  • Stub Democracy: A form of government in which ultimate sovereignty rests with the people. [e]
  • Developing Article Government: The system by which a community or nation is controlled and regulated. A government is a person or group of persons who govern a political community or nation. [e]
  • Developing Article Human rights: Natural civil and political rights considered universal and applicable to all human beings worldwide. [e]
  • Influence (politics): Milder form of the exercise of power, usually manifested as persuasion, cooperation or the ability to forestall opposition without threats or bargaining. Distinguished from and sometimes contrasted with power as the ability to overcome opposition or succeed in the face of opposition. [e]
  • Interest (politics): Excitement, prompting or stimulation of curiosity or attention. See also advantage, altruism, benefit, general interest, profit, public interest, self-interest, or self-interest, properly understood. [e]
  • Stub Interest group: An organization that seeks to represent its members' interests, usually by seeking to influence political and/or public policy outcomes. [e]
  • Judiciary: The whole body of judges or justices in a legal or political system, also including the courts and other judicial institutions, and rules and procedures unique to those officials. In the U.S., one of the three basic branches of government. [e]
  • Developing Article Lobbying: The legal process by which interest groups or individuals attempt to influence the policy or votes of government officials [e]
  • Stub Monarchy: A form of government in which a single person, or monarch, is the head of state. [e]
  • Stub Nation: A large group of people with a singular, shared, and commonly-accepted historical identity, identified by a universally recognised name. [e]
  • Stub Peace: The absence of armed conflict, or causes of violence, between groups of people. [e]
  • Political capital: The material and symbolic assets of a person, organization or institution that contribute to its political efficacy. [e]
  • Political organization: Any organization engaged in the polity, including political parties, advocacy organizations, interest groups, nongovernmental organizations and others. The transformation of an apolitical organization into a political one is said to involve being politicized. [e]
  • Stub Power (politics): The capacity to control the administration of resources within a society [e]
  • Public Interest: Add brief definition or description
  • Developing Article Prisoner's dilemma: In game theory, a non-zero sum game in which mutual cooperation is better for all participants than uncoordinated attempts to maximize individual personal gains. [e]
  • Stub Republic: A form of government in which political power and authority is derived from the citizenry, and not from a monarch, whether hereditary or "tyrannical" (ie, a dictator). [e]
  • Revolution: A fundamental change in a political, economic, social or cultural system, particularly one which is sudden, dramatic or results in a basic change in the constitution or basic circumstances of the system. [e]
  • Approved Article Social capital: Productive assets arising out of social relations, such as trust, cooperation, solidarity, social networks of relations and those beliefs, ideologies and institutions that contribute to production of goods. [e]
  • State: Please do not use this term in your topic list, because there is no single article for it. Please substitute a more precise term. See State (disambiguation) for a list of available, more precise, topics. Please add a new usage if needed.
  • Stub War: A state of violent conflict which exists between two or more independent groups, each seeking to impose its will on the other. [e]

Events, enactments and other developments

  • Developing Article American Civil War: Major war 1861-65 fought over slavery in which the U.S. defeated the secessionist Confederate States of America. [e]
  • Developed Article Arab Spring: Protest movements in the Arab world that seek the removal of oppressive governments. [e]
  • Developing Article Bill of Rights: List of rights enjoyed by an individual in a specific context. [e]
  • Stub Bill of Rights (England): An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown [e]
  • Developing Article Cold War: Geostrategic, economic and ideological struggle from about 1947 to 1991 between the Soviet Union and the United States and their allies. [e]
  • Developing Article English Civil War: 1641-1651 conflict between Parliamentarians and Royalists loyal to the monarchy. [e]
  • Stub The Enlightenment: An 18th-century movement in Western philosophy and intellectual life generally, that emphasized the power or reason and science to understand and reform the world. [e]
  • Developing Article French Revolution: The revolutionary episode in France that deposed the king and the aristocracy, created a republic, and included a period of terror, in which thousands were killed or driven into exile. [e]
  • Glorious Revolution: (1688 - 89) Largely bloodless events which deposed King James VII and II (of Scotland and England), brought William and Mary to the thrones and established the monarchy on a contract basis. [e]
  • Developed Article Great Depression: the severe downturn in economic activity that started in 1929 in Germany and the United States and affected many other countries. [e]
  • Developed Article Great Recession: The disruption of economic activity that began with a downturn in 2007 and generated international repercussions that continued through 2012 and into 2013. [e]
  • Developing Article The Holocaust: Nazi Germany's systematic economic exploitation, followed by killing, of European Jews and others deemed racial and ideological enemies [e]
  • Developing Article Iran-Iraq War: War between Iran and Iraq, 1980-1988, with very high casualties on both sides, but an inconclusive result [e]
  • Developing Article Israel-Palestine Conflict: Politics, insurgency, terrorism, and counterinsurgency between the State of Israel and the population of the Occupied Territories of the West Bank and Gaza [e]
  • Stub Magna Carta: A 13th century charter that forms part of the British constitution and which has been classified as a document of global significance. [e]
  • Developing Article Renaissance: Cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Florence in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. [e]


Global ideologies

  • Developing Article Anarchism: Doctrine that all forms of government are undesirable and should be abolished. [e]
  • Autocracy: Government by a single, supreme leader. A modern version of Aristotle's "rule by one", generally seen as different from monarchy, but closely related to dictatorship and, even some forms of oligarchy. Thus, Syria was, until recently, seen as a monarchy while Egypt under Mubarek was an autocracy. [e]
  • Stub Conservatism: Political principles and practices that oppose radical reform, emphasising respect for existing institutions and traditions, and often involving support for the free enterprise capitalism. [e]
  • Communitarianism: The view that the rights of the individuals to self-accomplishment should be balanced with duties and responsibilities toward society as well as by a stronger sense of the common good. [e]
  • Isolationism: Avoidance of involvement in the affairs of other countries. [e]
  • Developing Article Liberalism: Economic and political doctrine advocating free enterprise, free competition and free will. [e]
  • Stub Libertarianism: A political ideology that regards individual freedom as having the highest value in society. [e]
  • Developing Article Nativism (politics): Interests of certain established inhabitants of an area or nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants. [e]
  • Developing Article Pacifism: Negatively, a belief that all war is wrong, positively, a belief in right relationships between people. [e]
  • Stub Socialism: Any socio-economic system in which property and distribution of wealth are controlled by a community, by cooperation law. [e]
  • Developing Article Social Darwinism: Efforts to draw political conclusions from the theory of evolution by natural selection. [e]
  • Stub Social democracy: A political movement which seeks to attain community control of the distribution of wealth through democratic means. [e]
  • Marxist-Leninism: The political system which Lenin derived from the works of Karl Marx. [e]

Regional ideologies

Economic Theories of Politics

  • Developed Article Keynesianism: Economic theorists who have developed the theory originated by John Maynard Keynes which advocates the use of fiscal policy to maintain economic stability. [e]
  • Developing Article Monetarism: a theory that explains inflation as the inevitable consequence of an increase in the money supply. [e]
  • Stub Utilitarianism: Philosophical doctrine created by Jeremy Bentham and James Mill which states that an action can be considered good to the extent that it increases the general level of happiness in society. [e]


  • Stub Adam Smith: Scottish moral philosopher and political economist (1723-1790), a major contributor to the modern perception of free market economics; author of Wealth of Nations (1776). [e]
  • Developing Article Aristotle: (384-322 BCE) Ancient Greek philosopher and scientist, and one of the most influential figures in the western world between 350 BCE and the sixteenth century. [e]
  • Developing Article Confucius: (551-479 BCE) was the essence of the ancient Chinese sage, a social philosopher, an educator, and the founder of the Ru School of Chinese thought. [e]
  • Stub Thomas Hobbes: English political philosopher of the 17th century. [e]
  • Developing Article John Locke: (1632–1704) English empiricist philosopher. [e]
  • Developing Article Niccolò Machiavelli: (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) Italian philosopher and writer, considered one of the main founders of modern political science. [e]
  • Mencius: Chinese philosopher of the Confucian school who is the second most widely known after Confucius. Particularly noted for his handling of the political aspects of Confucian thought. [e]
  • Stub Friedrich Nietzsche: (1844–1900) German philosopher and writer who developed key concepts of morality, religion and the contemporary culture of Europe. [e]
  • Developed Article Thomas Paine: (1737-1809) English writer, intellectual and revolutionary whose works were influential during the Enlightenment in the United States and Europe. [e]
  • Developing Article Plato: (circa 427-347 BCE) Ancient Greek philosopher, whose dialogues, supposedly recording conversations with Socrates, contain many of the debates central to Western philosophy. [e]
  • Developed Article James Madison: (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), An American politician, political theorist, Secretary of State, fourth President of the United States of America (1809–1817) and one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States. [e]
  • Developed Article Karl Marx: 19th century philosopher and economist. Creator of a theoretical foundation for Communism. [e]
  • Developing Article John Rawls: (1921–2002) American liberal political philosopher and professor at Harvard University. [e]
  • Developed Article Jean-Jacques Rousseau: (1712–1778) French author and philosopher. [e]
  • Developing Article Alexis de Tocqueville: Still-influential early 19th century French observer of the process of democracy in the United States [e]

Political systems

  • Stub Anarchy: (from Greek word anarkhos)The absence of government or other political authority. [e]
  • Stub Aristocracy: A form of government in which power is held by a select group of people. [e]
  • Stub Democracy: A form of government in which ultimate sovereignty rests with the people. [e]
  • Stub Monarchy: A form of government in which a single person, or monarch, is the head of state. [e]
  • Developing Article Oligarchy: A form of government in which political power is vested in a small group or faction [e]
  • Stub Republic: A form of government in which political power and authority is derived from the citizenry, and not from a monarch, whether hereditary or "tyrannical" (ie, a dictator). [e]


Global organisations

  • Stub International Court of Justice: An international organization with the dual roles of settling, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States (Contentious cases ) and to give advisory opinions (Advisory proceedings) on legal questions referred to it by duly authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies. [e]
  • Developing Article International Criminal Court: A permanent tribunal, established by treaty among over 120 nations but not part of the United Nations, for trying individuals for crimes against humanity; a number of major countries do not accept its authority [e]
  • Stub International Monetary Fund: International organization that oversees the global financial system by stabilizing international exchange rates and facilitating development, and offering highly leveraged loans mainly to poorer countries. [e]
  • Stub League of Nations: International association of countries established in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles to promote cooperation and achieve international peace and security. [e]
  • Stub OECD: The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development that was mandated in 1960 "to contribute to sound economic expansion in member, as well as non-member countries in the process of economic development". [e]
  • Developing Article Roman Catholic Church: The largest of several Christian churches that holds communion with the Pope in Rome, claiming direct succession from Saint Peter. [e]
  • Stub United Nations: An international organization that was founded in 1945 with the mission of preventing international war, protecting human rights, supporting social progress and justice, and helping with economic progress. [e]
  • Stub World Bank: Collective name for the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and its affiliates: the International Finance Corporation, organized in 1950 to provide long-term project financing to developing countries; and the International Development Association, formed in 1960 to make long-term loans at low interest rates. [e]

Regional organisations

  • Developing Article African Union: Continental organization, which succeeded the Organisation of African Unity on September 9, 1999. [e]
  • Stub Association of Southeast Asian Nations: Association of South-East Asian Nations; treaty group formed in 1967, originally comprising Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand; Brunei was admitted as a member in 1984, Vietnam in 1995, Burma and Laos in 1997, Cambodia in 1999; Australia is a "dialogue partner". [e]
  • Council of Europe: Add brief definition or description
  • Developing Article European Union: Political and economic association of 28 European states. [e]
  • Developing Article Eurozone: The member states of the European Union that use the euro as their common currency (Belgium, Germany¸ Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Cyprus, Luxembourg, Malta, The Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia, and Finland) [e]
  • Developing Article North Atlantic Treaty Organization: Intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949, with its headquarters in Brussels, Belgium. [e]

National organisations


19th century and before

20th & 21st centuries


  • Stub Capital punishment: The practice of punishment of a crime through state-sanctioned killing. [e]
  • Diplomacy (foreign policy): The process of negotiations, among nations, usually by accredited representatives of a government. While the details of the negotiations may not be public information, the fact of the diplomatic negotiations is official and acknowledged [e]
  • Environment (politics): ----

The politicization of a range of scientific issues involving global warming, air pollution, water pollution, questions of sustainability like the sustainable city, biodiversity and other, scientific and technical issues of biology, ecology, physics and other sciences and engineering. [e]

  • Developing Article Fiscal conservatism: A political position (primarily in the United States) that calls for lower levels of public spending, lower taxes and lower government debt. [e]
  • Developing Article Fiscal policy: Policy concerning public expenditure, taxation and borrowing and the provision of public goods and services, and their effects upon social conduct, the distribution of wealth and the level of economic activity. [e]
  • Developing Article Financial regulation: a regime that has the purpose of promoting the stability of banks and other financial institutions and the purpose of preserving the integrity of the financial system. [e]
  • Developing Article Grand strategy: The application of all national means of affecting the actions of other nations and non-national actors; specifically includes but is not restricted to military means [e]
  • Developing Article Monetary policy: The economic policy instrument that is regularly used to stabilise the economy, and that has sometimes been used as a temporary expedient to relieve severe credit shortages. [e]
  • National debt: The external obligations of the government and public sector agencies (otherwise known as national debt or government debt). [e]
  • Developing Article Poverty: Human deprivation based on lack of material resources. [e]
  • Developing Article Public expenditure: Spending by the public sector [e]
  • Realism (foreign policy): A concept, in foreign policy, that actors can cooperate on matters of common external concern, without attempting to reform one anothers' internal structures [e]
  • Stub Taxation: The transfer of resources from the community to the government. [e]
  • Developed Article U.S. foreign policy: The foreign relations and diplomacy of the United States since 1775. [e]
  • Stub War: A state of violent conflict which exists between two or more independent groups, each seeking to impose its will on the other. [e]
  • Developed Article Washington Consensus: An interpretation of the conditions required by the International Monetary Fund for financial assistance to developing countries. [e]