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Pessimism measured early in life is associated with later mortality.[1]

Optimism is associated with better health.[2]


  1. Grossardt BR, Bower JH, Geda YE, Colligan RC, Rocca WA (June 2009). "Pessimistic, anxious, and depressive personality traits predict all-cause mortality: the Mayo Clinic cohort study of personality and aging". Psychosom Med 71 (5): 491–500. DOI:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31819e67db. PMID 19321849. Research Blogging.
  2. Tindle HA, Chang YF, Kuller LH, Manson JE, Robinson JG, Rosal MC et al. (2009). "Optimism, cynical hostility, and incident coronary heart disease and mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.". Circulation 120 (8): 656-62. DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.827642. PMID 19667234. Research Blogging.