Peshawar is a the capital of the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan and the largest city of the Province. The Federally Administered Tribal Area bordering Peshawar is the Khyber Agency, which, in turn, is adjacent to the West Mohammad Agency to its North and Northwest and the Semi-tribal regions of Kohat and Peshawar to its South. The Afghan border is 40 km to the west.It is strategically significant in the current Pakistani and cross-border insurgency.
It has a Pakistani population of 2.4 million, and 400,000 Afghans, spread over 1.257 square kilometers. 
The city is in a sesmically active area and has suffered major earthquakes. 
The city name derives its name from a Sanskrit word 'Pushpapura' meaning the city of flowers, and its flowers were mentioned in Babar's memoirs.
It is in the heart of the current insurgency. There was a hotel bombing in June 2009, a suicide attack for which Tehrik-e-Taliban (TTP) claimed responsibility. "Anyone who will oppose us to please the Americans will face the same fate. The people favouring America are our enemies. Our aim is to enforce the Islamic law in the country" 
- Welcome to Peshawar, Department of Information Technology, Northwest Frontier Province
- Ali Quaisar, Akhtar Naeem Khan (2005), "A critical review of the seismic hazard zoning of peshawar and adjoining areas", Journal of Earthquake Engineering 9 (5): 587-607
- "Pakistani Taliban claim Peshawar hotel, Lahore mosque blasts", Agence France Presse, Times of India, June 10, 2009
- "Peshawar airport rocketed", The Nation (Pakistan), April 26, 2009