- Paper (material): A type of material made of flat sheets of dried, fibrous substances, but most commonly refers to those made from wood pulp.
- Newspaper: Periodical publications presenting current news and commentary on politics, government, business, sport and other matters of public interest.
- Scientific article: The most common unit of formal communication in a scientific context, typically describing a piece of new scientific research, or providing an overview about the state of research on a specific topic.
- An academic paper, such as:
- A research article, report, project or essay ("A paper on . . . the history of the three-legged race”)
- A published, peer-reviewed article
- Educational documents: "Term Papers", "Exam Papers"
- Plural of any of above, except that plural sheets of the material are usually pieces of paper
- The archived work of a notable personality (“The Papers of Bozo the Clown at the University of ___”)
- Government documents: “Westminster Papers”; “Parliamentary Papers”; "White Paper"
- Collected works about an individual, e.g., "Presidential Papers"
- Official documents identifying a person's identity such as a passport or ID card, e.g., “Show me your papers”