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A list of key readings about Orch-OR.
Please sort and annotate in a user-friendly manner. For formatting, consider using automated reference wikification.

Roger Penrose, The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and The Laws of Physics (1989).

Roger Penrose, Shadows of the Mind: A Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness (1994).

Chalmers DJ (1995) Minds, machines, and mathematics - a review of Shadows of the Mind by Roger Penrose PSYCHE 2 June

Seth AK, Izhikevich E, Reeke GN, Edelman GM. Theories and measures of consciousness: an extended framework. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jul 11;103:10799-804. PMID 16818879


Hameroff SR, Watt RC (1982) Information processing in microtubules J Theor Biol 98:549-61

Hameroff SR, Penrose R (1996) Orchestrated reduction of quantum coherence in brain microtubules: A model for consciousness. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 40:453-480

Hameroff SR, Penrose R (1996) Conscious events as orchestrated spacetime selections J Consciousness Studies 3:36-53

Hameroff S (1998) Quantum computation in brain microtubules? The Penrose-Hameroff "Orch OR" model of consciousness Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser A 356:1869-96

Hameroff S (1998b) Funda-mentality": is the conscious mind subtly linked to a basic level of the universe? Trends Cog Sci 2:119-27

Hameroff S (1998d) Did consciousness cause the Cambrian evolutionary explosion? In: Toward a Science of Consciousness II: The Second Tucson Discussions and Debates Eds. Hameroff SR, Kaszniak AW, Scott AC, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press pp.421-37

Hameroff SR (1998). "Quantum computation in brain microtubules? The Penrose-Hameroff "Orch OR" model of consciousness". Phil Trans R Soc Lond (A) 356: 1869–96.

Hameroff SR et al. (2002) Conduction pathways in microtubules, biological quantum computation and microtubules Biosystems 64:149-68


Grush R, Churchland PS (1995). "Gaps in Penrose's toilings". J Consciousness Studies 2: 10–29.

Penrose R, Hameroff SR (1995) What gaps? Reply to Grush and Churchland J Consciousness Studies 2:98-112

McDermott D (1995) Penrose is wrong PSYCHE 2, October

Spier E, Thomas A (1998) A Quantum of Consciousness? A glance at a physical theory for a mind Trends Cog Sci 2:124-5

Tegmark, M (2000), "Importance of quantum decoherence in brain processes", Phys Rev E 61: 4194–206

Hagan S et al. (2002) Quantum computation in brain microtubules? Decoherence and biological feasibility Phys Rev E 65:061901

Georgiev DD (2007). "Falsifications of Hameroff-Penrose Orch OR model of consciousness and novel avenues for development of quantum mind theory". NeuroQuantology 5: 145–74.

Georgiev DD (2009). "Remarks on the number of tubulin dimers per neuron and implications for Hameroff-Penrose Orch". NeuroQuantology 7: 677–9.

Georgiev DD (2009). "Tubulin-bound GTP cannot pump microtubule coherence in stable microtubules. Towards a revision of microtubule based quantum models of mind". NeuroQuantology 7: 538–47.

Reimers JR et al. (2009). "Weak, strong, and coherent regimes of Fröhlich condensation and their applications to terahertz medicine and quantum consciousness". Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 106: 4219–24.

McKemmish LK et al. (2009). "Penrose-Hameroff orchestrated objective-reduction proposal for human consciousness is not biologically feasible". Phys Rev E 80: 021912–6.