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- Conant, Levi Leonard. The Number Concept: Its Origin and Development (1896), 218 pp. online edition
- Sarton, George. "Decimal Systems Early and Late," Osiris, Vol. 9. (1950), pp. 581-601. in JSTOR
- Smith, David Eugene, and Louis Charles Karpinski. The Hindu-Arabic Numerals, (1911) 160pp online edition