Muhammad Ali Jinnah

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Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948), known as Quaid-e-Azam, is generally considered the key individual in the foundation of Pakistan. He was a non-practicing Shi'a Muslim, surprising given the nature of Pakistan as a Muslim state and the way he is often invoked as an Islamist ideal.

He was born in Karachi, where he lived whenever he could. His first education was at the Sindh Madrassa, but then at the Mission School, Karachi, giving him perspectives of Islam and Christianity. In 1892, he went to England for further education and qualified as a lawyer in 1897.

His first political activity was in 1906, attending the the Calcutta session of the All India National Congress ias Private Secretary to the President of the Congress. He was elected, in 1910, to the Imperial Legislative Council. He sponsored the Waqf Validating Bill, which brought him in touch with other Muslim leaders. In March 1913, he joined the All India Muslim League. [1] He later came to regard the predominantly Hindu Congress as the enemy of Muslims. Originally promoting the idea of a separate Muslim electorate in an independent India, he eventually came to stand out for the creation of a separate Muslim state, to be called Pakistan.[2]


  1. Muhammad Ali Jinnah [1876-1948], Story of Pakistan
  2. Gandhi, Rajmohan. Gandhi: the man, his people, and the Empire. Haus Publishing. 2007.