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Louis Felix Diat (1885–1957) was a French-American chef and culinary writer. It is often claimed that he created vichyssoise soup, though this is unproven and disputed.
Diat was born in 1885 in Bourbon-l'Archambault/Montmarault, France, where his father managed a shoe store. During the summer, when Diat and his siblings desired a cold snack, Diat's mother Annette often poured milk into leftover potato-and-leek soup (potage bonne femme).
At age five, Diat learned to cook. At age eight, he awoke early before school to cook soup. He observed the cooking of his mother and grandmother. His mother taught him tarts, while his grandmother demonstrated how to broil chicken over charcoal. By age 13, Diat resolved to become a chef, and by 14, he entered into an apprenticeship in a Moulins patisserie.
At 18, he spent tours of duty at Paris' Hôtel Le Bristol Paris and L'Hotel Du Rhin. Diat was appointed chef potager (soup chef) in 1903 at Hôtel Ritz Paris. In 1906, at 21, he transferred to The Ritz Hotel London, where he held the same position and also aided the main sauce maker. At both locations, Diat was coached by founder César Ritz.
On October 8, 1910, aged 25, Diat immigrated to New York, becoming the chef of Carlton House on 23 October 1910 and about 7 weeks later the head chef of the newly opened Ritz-Carlton in Manhattan. The first week of November, Diat applied to be a citizen of the United States. Diat served as the chef de cuisine at the Ritz-Carlton's roof-garden restaurant. Auguste Escoffier oversaw the inauguration of the restaurant. Diat invented a novel recipe every summer for the sultry climate. Template:Quote box
During his 41-year stint at the Ritz-Carlton, he cooked for King Edward VIII as the Prince of Wales; other nobles like queens, prime ministers, and ambassadors; and on one occasion, the exclusive wine club Confrérie des Chevaliers du Tastevin ("Knights of the Wine Cup"). He "worked fourteen hours a day, six days a week, and spent seven or eight hours at the hotel on Sunday, his day off". According to Lawrence, Diat was the supervisor of 150 chefs. "Formidable" yet benign, Diat served as the kitchen mediator and first aid expert in the case of injuries. Diat forbade the use of substitutes in food, and rejected the proposition of a canned version of vichyssoise.
Diat typically reached his office by 8:15 am and spent slightly over an hour ordering goods. For the remainder of the morning, he supervised and advised his kitchen staff and confirmed the menus. In the afternoon, he wrote in his office.
Diat taught cooking classes in the kitchens. Some of his students became chefs at other hotels in New York, Washington, D.C., and Colorado. Diat received a visit from the president of the Campbell Soup Company, Arthur Dorance, who stayed at the Ritz for half a year to learn Diat's soup making techniques. In 1938, Diat won the distinguished Chevalier du Mérite Agricole "for having done so much to bring an important element of culture and civilization to the United States". In 1947, Diat became the in-house chef of Gourmet. Diat was included in a list of chefs with annual salaries of $10,000 to $25,000.
On 2 May 1951, the Ritz-Carlton closed for demolition. Diat prepared a "farewell luncheon" for the kitchen personnel. Diat retired, returning to his home in Hartsdale, where he spent the rest of his life writing cookbooks. On 29 August 1957, Diat died in New York Hospital aged 72.
Invention of vichyssoise
In 1917,[note 1] seeking to "invent some new and startling cold soup" for the menu at the Ritz-Carlton, he recalled his mother's soup. His experimenting soon led to a combination of "leeks, onions, potatoes, butter, milk, cream and other seasonings". Diat named it "crème vichyssoise glacée" (chilled cream vichyssoise), after Vichy, a spa town near his birthplace in France that is famous for both its exceptional food and its springs. The new item enjoyed "instant success". Charles M. Schwab was the first to sample vichyssoise and requested another serving.
Vichyssoise was served the rest of the summer and the following summers. During the colder seasons, he did not include it in the menu, but so many people asked for it, in 1923, Diat placed it on the menu full-time. Diat recalled that Sara Roosevelt had had vichysoisse and "once called me up at five in the afternoon and asked me to send eight portions to her house".
When Diat had no access to leeks in his cooking, his vexation prompted the produce stocker to find a Long Island farmer to cultivate a small yield.
Diat and his wife Suzanne had one child, a daughter, Suzette. Between 1916 and 1929, the family lived in New Rochelle, N.Y. Between 1929 and January 1950, they lived in a small apartment on Manhattan's Central Park West. Thereafter, Diat and his wife lived in Hartsdale, in Westchester County, N.Y.
Suzette Diat married George J. Lawrence, with whom she had two children. In an interview, Suzette Diat Lawrence described her father as "a gentle, humble man, simple in his tastes. ... He enjoyed good cooking. It didn't have to be fancy as long as it was prepared well without too much seasoning and not too rich". She considered her father a patient instructor, "He would answer any question concerned with cooking. He had no secrets." Additionally, Diat "taught his family the art of using leftovers" to create new dishes.
Diat's two brothers also distinguished themselves in the culinary field. Jules Diat was a teacher. His son (Louis's nephew) was chef saucier (sauce chef) at the 1939 New York World's Fair. A participant in the French Resistance during World War II, he was killed by the Germans. Lucien Diat, younger than Louis by seventeen years, was the renowned executive chef at Plaza Athénée hotel in Paris and also the teacher of Jacques Pépin.
Aside from writing magazine features for Gourmet, Diat also authored some cookbooks. He collaborated with Helen E. Ridley, a home economist and administrator of the J. Walter Thompson Company.[note 2] She reminisced, "Louis always thought the United States had a magnificent supply of really fine foods, that there was no place in Europe that could rival it in the variety and quality of available ingredients."
Cooking à la Ritz[note 3] included Diat's recipe for vichyssoise, along with other dishes he created during his time at the Ritz-Carlton.
In Louis Diat's French Cookbook for Americans,[note 4] Diat compared cooking in the United States with cooking in France. He noted that the key to cooking is appeal. "[Americans] could do it as well as the French, but one has to be interested. In France girls of 11 already are able to prepare meals from watching and helping their mothers. It's early training that does it". Diat proceeded to discuss meat, gravies, fish, and salads. Finally, he added that "fine cooking is the basis of a happy life ... Men like to eat well ... so if you want to keep your husband home, learn to be a good cook." Many of the recipes in this book are derived from the meals Diat's mother cooked. Diat alleged that American women cannot cook since they "often ruin good food trying to save" money or time. In response to this dilemma, Diat wrote a book entitled La Cuisine de Ma Mère to divulge all his "cooking secrets". Diat suggests that they "approach their cooking with imagination, interest and an eye for artistic effects". Ascribing his culinary finesse to his mother, Diat dedicated the book to his mother, "Annette Alajoinine Diat, who guided the early years, inspired the later ones and whose memory is still a spur".
In Sauces: French and Famous (1951), Diat discussed how to make the sauces bechamel, brown sauce, tomato sauce, and mayonnaise. He also included a narration of his eating habits. Diat also wrote French Cooking for the Home (1956) and Gourmet's Basic French Cookbook (1961).
Notes and references
- ↑ The date of Diat's invention of vichyssoise is given as either 1917 or 1910. One publication reported that vichyssoise was invented in 1917 for a function commemorating the inaugural issue of Vanity Fair. Vanity Fair reported that it was created in June 1917 for the inauguration of the hotel restaurant.
- ↑ The J. Walter Thompson Company was the publicity firm for the Ritz.
- ↑ This was published in 1941 by J. B. Lippincott & Co. It is no longer in print.
- ↑ This was published in 1946 by J. B. Lippincott & Co. and later renamed to Home Cook Book: French Cooking for Americans
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Snodgrass, Mary Ellen (2004). Encyclopedia of Kitchen History, 2. New York: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-57958-380-6.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Bowman, John Stewart (1995). The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-40258-1.
- ↑ Feeding a Husband in the Summer, 8 June 1949, p. 14. Retrieved on 23 November 2010.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Nickerson, Jane. Louis Diat, the Ritz-Carlton Chef, Writes Cook Book on French Provincial Dishes, 3 April 1946, p. 28.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Louis Diat, 30 August 1957, p. 6. Retrieved on 23 November 2010.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Roe, Dorothy. U S Women Can't Cook, Says Chef, 7 October 1945, p. SM9.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 Rice, William. A Soup with A Ritzy Pedigree Hot or Cold, Vichyssoise Is Worth Spooning Over, 2 August 1987, p. 33. Retrieved on 2 December 2010.
- ↑ Julian, Sheryl. Summer Soups; Make Them Light and Refreshing – But Not Necessarily Cold, 9 July 1986, p. 43. Retrieved on 7 December 2010. Template:Subscription required
- ↑ 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 Hellman, Geoffrey T. (2007). “Diat”, David Remnick: Secret Ingredients: The New Yorker Book of Food and Drink. New York: Random House, 421–242. ISBN 1-4000-6547-X.
- ↑ News of Food; Chef Louis Diat Recommends New Dish On Ritz-Carlton Summer Garden Menu, 21 May 1947, p. 22. Retrieved on 7 December 2010.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 Hansan, Barbara. Creme Vichyssoise Glacee, 17 December 1970.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 Louis Diat, Chef de Cuisine, Dies; Creator of Vichyssoise Was 72; Artist of the Menu 41 Years at Ritz-Carlton Raised Leek and Potato to Greatness, 30 August 1957, p. 19.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 Claiborne, Craig. Ritz Carlton Recalled With Nostalgia, 2 May 1961, p. 41.
- ↑ News of Food: Ritz Chef; Fresh Suggestions Still Emerging From Kitchen of Retired Mr. Diat, 4 July 1955, p. 14. Retrieved on 6 December 2010.
- ↑ "Harvard in Hotel Business; Inherits New York's Ritz", 12 July 1941, p. 14. Template:Subscription required
- ↑ Nickerson, Jane. With Champagne and Burgundy, 30 May 1948, p. SM28. Retrieved on 6 December 2010.
- ↑ (2006) The Gourmet Cookbook: More Than 1000 Recipes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0-618-80692-X.
- ↑ Template:Cite magazine
- ↑ Chefs Draw Big Salaries, 8 December 1922, p. 32. Retrieved on 7 December 2010.
- ↑ Allen, Beth. Good Housekeeping Great American Classics Cookbook. New York: Hearst Books. ISBN 1-58816-280-X.
- ↑ (2003) Celebrate!: cookbook. New York: Workman Publishing. ISBN 0-7611-2372-5.
- ↑ Claiborne, Craig (1994). Craig Claiborne's The New York Times Food Encyclopedia. New York: Random House Value Publishing. ISBN 0-517-11906-4. “The date of this invention is generally given as 1910. But according to an old edition of Vanity Fair, the soup was presented at the opening of the hotel's roof garden. That event took place in June 1917.”
- ↑ Harrison, Dale. "In Old New York", 23 September 1939, p. 6. Template:Subscription required
- ↑ (2005) Dining with Friends: The Art of North American Vegan Cuisine. Darien, CT: Nectar Bat Press. ISBN 0-9769159-0-1.
- ↑ Paddleford, Clementine. "Louis Diat, executive chef of the Ritz Carlton Hotel, claims the honor of having introduced vichyssoise to America", 7 July 1946, p. 17. Template:Subscription required
- ↑ Church, Ruth Ellen. Elegance Is Cold Soup (if It's Vichyssoise), 4 May 1969, p. 82. Retrieved on 7 December 2010.
- ↑ Larsen, Ted. Classical Recipes Feature The Flavorful Elegance Of Leeks, 3 June 1987, p. 3C. Retrieved on 8 December 2010.
- ↑ Jacques Pépin, The Apprentice: My Life in the Kitchen (New York: Houghton Mifflin 2004), p. 88.
- ↑ 29.0 29.1 29.2 News of Food; Chef of the Ritz-Carlton Offers Advice On Sauces From His Forthcoming Book, 19 April 1951, p. 37. Retrieved on 7 December 2010.
- ↑ 30.0 30.1 30.2 Nickerson, Jane. Food: Diat's Cuisine; The Late Chef of Ritz-Carlton Hotel Said U.S. Provided Best Ingredients Most Popular Dishes, 4 September 1957, p. 38.
- ↑ Cunningham, Marion. Home Cook: The Grandmother of Vichyssoise, 7 May 1992, p. 25. Retrieved on 30 November 2010. Template:Subscription required
- ↑ Famous Chef Gives Pointers On Glamorizing Summer Food, The Owosso Argus-Press, 14 June 1949, p. 10. Retrieved on 8 December 2010.
- Leigh, Rowley. "A Silky Summer Soup", 29 May 2004, p. 5.
- Claiborne, Craig. Cookbook On Review; Work by Late Chef Is Commended, 15 November 1961, p. 46. Retrieved on 7 December 2010.