Implantable cardioverter defibrillator

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In medicine and cardiology, implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), also called automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillators (AICD) are "implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes."[1]


Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators can reduce mortality in patients who have heart failure with an ejection fraction of less than 35%.[2]


AIDs may cause venous thrombosis and stenosis.[3] Study of similar devices such as transvenous artificial pacemakers show that thrombosis can be common, but usually does not lead to symptoms.[4] Thrombosis and complications such as pulmonary embolism, may occur in the first few months after implantation.[5]


  1. Anonymous (2022), Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  2. Bardy GH, Lee KL, Mark DB, et al (2005). "Amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for congestive heart failure". N. Engl. J. Med. 352 (3): 225–37. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa043399. PMID 15659722. Research Blogging.
  3. Rozmus G, Daubert JP, Huang DT, Rosero S, Hall B, Francis C (June 2005). "Venous thrombosis and stenosis after implantation of pacemakers and defibrillators". J Interv Card Electrophysiol 13 (1): 9–19. DOI:10.1007/s10840-005-1140-1. PMID 15976973. Research Blogging.
  4. Zuber M, Huber P, Fricker U, Buser P, Jäger K (December 1998). "Assessment of the subclavian vein in patients with transvenous pacemaker leads". Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 21 (12): 2621–30. PMID 9894653. [e]
  5. Korkeila P, Ylitalo A, Koistinen J, Airaksinen KE (October 2008). "Progression of venous pathology after pacemaker and cardioverter-defibrillator implantation: A prospective serial venographic study". Ann. Med.: 1–8. DOI:10.1080/07853890802498961. PMID 18979290. Research Blogging.