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The Comoros is a federal republic located on an archipelago in the Indian Ocean, consisting of three islands; Grande Comore (Ngazidja), Mohéli (Mwali) and Anjouan (Nzwani), and smaller islets. Located between the island of Madagascar and north-east of Mozambique, the islands are volcanic in origin. First explored by the Portuguese in 1501, the French established colonial rule in 1841, following a treaty with the Malagasy King of Mayotte, Andrian Tsouli. The Comoros declared independence from France in 1975, but has experienced numerous coups since. The largest island is Grande Comore, which also hosts the capital Moroni. Estimated population of the Comoros in 2010 is 798,000.