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A timeline (or several) relating to Chiropractic.

Pre 1895

Alternative Healthcare grows as a result of Herioc medicine
Heroic medicine, in which the patient, rather than the physician (or the therapy) was heroic, flourished between the 1780s and 1850s.Online 06/05/06


DD manipulates Harvey Lillard


DD manipulates in order to adjust all mechanical body parts to reduce friction heat



Andrew P Davis MD, DO graduates
William A Seeley MD graduates


Oagley G Smith graduates



Solon Langsworthy graduates
TH Storey graduates



BJ graduates
1902 (Jan 19): Langworthy writes to BJ to indicate he is teaching "chiropractic and osteopathy", proposes partnership with DD, BJ, Oakley Smith and others (Zarbuck, 1988c)
BJ meets with Langworthy about partnership in American Chiropractic School and Naturopathic Cure
1902 (Apr): BJ meets with Langworthy to discuss partnership proposal, returns to DD with some of Langworthy's books on "Nature Cure" (Zarbuck, 1988c)
DD goes to Pasedena CA to find Thomas Storey, establishes chiro school
1902 (May): BJ takes over the Palmer school, while DD locates to Pasadena CA (Lerner, undated; Zarbuck & Hayes, 1990).
1) D.D. Palmer left Davenport in June of 1902 and arrived in Pasadena, California in a few days, where he established a chiropractic college.
2) D.D. Palmer left Pasadena and established a chiropractic college at Santa Barbara, California.
3) D.D. Palmer left Santa Barbara under pressure by the California Board of Medical Examiners. Such pressure was a charge of “practicing medicine without a license” filed in court in mid-November 1903.
4) The D.D. Palmer (Portland) College of Chiropractic opened Monday, November 9, 1908.
Simply stated, my research indicates that D.D. was not in Portland in 1903, but in Santa Barbara, California, then on to Davenport, and then Chicago, and then back to Davenport. No documents have been located that place D.D. in Portland until November, 1908.
BJ writes that DD went to California to cure Thomas Storey of insanity c1904 - notes that he left 1 1/2 years ago.
DD goes to Santa Barbara, establishes chiro school
Osteopaths initiate college inspections
Aug 6-8: "fifth regular meeting" of the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy initiates college inspections and accreditation; ER Booth PhD, DO will become first college inspector(Booth, 1924, p. 277-8)
DD harassed about stealing osteopathic concept
There were political reasons which may have encouraged the elder Palmer to narrow his theory and practice to subluxation only. Members of the osteopathic community had been haranguing Palmer, labeling him a thief who had appropriated portions of Still’s osteopathic concepts and repackaged them as chiropractic. Now DD and his followers would leave to the osteopaths the “rule of the artery,” and concern themselves exclusively with the presumed supremacy of the nervous system in dis-ease. This revision was legally reinforced in a courtroom in LaCrosse, Wisconsin in 1907 when the first acquittal of a chiropractor tried for unlicensed practice of osteopathy was based on the neural vs. circulatory distinction. Shegatoro Morikubo, D.C.’s legal defense (Rehm, 1986) set a theoretical precedent with the power to keep chiropractors out of jail. pg4
Aug 6-8: "fifth regular meeting" of the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy initiates college inspections and accreditation; ER Booth PhD, DO will become first college inspector(Booth, 1924, p. 277-8)


DD "discovers" thermoregulation was neural not circulatory - concentrates on subluxation not osteopathy
Sometime during the first several months of 1896, D.D. Palmer administered his first adjustment to Harvey Lillard (Lillard, 1897). The Lillard case was the initial, uncontrolled test of Palmer’s belief that anatomic displacements gave rise to inflammation, and thereby, to dis-ease. And Lillard’s lesion was an example of the bone-pinching-nerve paradigm that has come to dominate chiropractors’ thinking, DD’s early writings (Palmer, 1897a&b, 1900, 1902) are explicit in relating that he “manipulated in order to adjust” any displaced anatomic part, including arteries, veins, nerves, muscles, bones, ligaments and joints. This first chirotheory was as broad in its implications and applications as A.T. Still’s osteopathic hypotheses and practice, but was not synonymous with osteopathy. Still manipulated any body part thought to obstruct the flow of endogenous healing substances from the brain, which were believed to reach the end organs through the circulation and through the nerves. Palmer, on the other hand, manipulated (his initial terminology) in order to reposition displaced anatomy, and thereby avoid or relieve inflammation. Palmer’s ideas were also unique in that he proposed that repositioned anatomy would reform itself into better, more functional shapes; in this his anticipated orthopedic concepts that the stresses applied to osseous structures determine their form. By 1902 “Old Dad Chiro” (his preferred self-designation) was increasingly focused on the bone pinches-nerve ideas that later came to dominate chiropractic thinking. In July, 1903 he made another “discovery” (Keating, 1995), which resulted in an important reduction in his concept of chiropractic. By deciding that human thermoregulation was primarily a neural (rather than a circulatory) phenomenon, Palmer restricted his notion of the cause of dis-ease to only those anatomic displacements involving osseous pinching of nerves, i.e., the subluxation. The concept had been with him since the time of the Lillard case, but after 1903 it functioned as the exclusive chiropractic lesion for DD. Ninetyfive percent of all diseases, he suggested, were caused by neural interference produced by vertebral subluxations. DD’s son, B.J. Palmer, popularized this second theory of chiropractic with the classic “foot-on-the-hose” analogy. The father of chiropractic credited BJ with discerning the differential effects of slight versus greater pressures on nerves: B.J. Palmer was the first person who learned that a light pressure produced inflammation, an excessive amount of heat, over functional activity; while a heavy pressure caused paralysis, lack of function. This new thot brot much light on what was otherwise obscure. It explains why mental and physical magnetic influence returned the functions of nerves to their normal amount of action, the healer controlling, more or less, the nerves of the patient... (Palmer, 1906). pg 2
DD leaves Santa Barbara, charged with practicing medicine without a license
D.D. Palmer left Santa Barbara under pressure by the California Board of Medical Examiners. Such pressure was a charge of “practicing medicine without a license” filed in court in mid-November 1903.


DD and Oakley Smith open chiro school in Chicago
1904 (Jan-Apr): according to Merwyn V. Zarbuck DC (letter to Walter Wardwell PhD, 4/11/91), D.D. Palmer operated “a short-lived ‘DD Palmer School’ in Chicago IL(Jan 1904 to April 1904). His partners in the Chicago school were Oakley Smith, D.C. and Minora Paxson, D.C. Minora P. graduated from the DD Palmer School in Santa Barbara in June of 1903. Oakley Smith was DD’s partner in the Santa Barbara school.”; Zarbuck says he has copies of BJ’s diploma as “C.P.” rather than “D.C.”; notes BJ graduated in January, 1902 pg15
DD returns to PSC?
JAMA - states osteopathy too critical of drugs and patients using charlatans more as a result
JAMA - MD's encouraged to study Mechanotherapy, bonesetting and osteopathy
JAMA - treatment of a wide variety of derangements, not only of the coarser mechanisms, but also of the vital organs
1904 (Jan 2): JAMA [XLII: 57] includes:
17. Mechanotherapy. - Taylor points out the importance of massage, mechanotherapy, bone setting, etc., and the practice of osteopathy. He thinks the profession has become too critical in regard to drugs, and the public has followed its example, and takes up the more readily with charlatans, who claim to cure without them. Moreover, there are comparatively few of the medical profession who have familiarized themselves with massage and mechanotherapy generally. Our schools of massage are entirely superficial in their training. The European masseur finds our physicians unable to appreciate his skill, hence his attempt to get into independent practice, and the prejudice and rivalry aroused against him. Taylor claims that the field of mechanotherapy is boundless, and it is the duty of the educated physician to learn more of it. He thinks if the medical profession would read half a score of small books thoroughly (after revising their knowledge of the nervous mechanisms) and make practical use of the light thus gained, they would feel little hesitation in going forward to acquire skill in so practical and valuable a branch of therapeutics. The physician can not devote the time required by some of the more laborious and continuous, or routine procedures, but he should supervise the scientific part. He could and should make use of the more delicate manipulations, which are of the greatest value. To illustrate the teachings of the osteopathic schools, he mentions two graduates of Scandinavian massage institutions who came to this country and hearing of osteopathy took a course at Kirksville. Both assured the author that they learned no facts of importance not already known to them. The sphere of manual therapy lies in the ability of medical practitioners to influence centers of organic activity by mechanical stimulation through the vasomotor nerves. They should not abandon well-tried and proven remedies, but in manual therapy, when applied by the physician, there is a prompt and exact method far in advance of all others in the treatment of a wide variety of derangements, not only of the coarser mechanisms, but also of the vital organs/
Langworthy school goes to 2 years - 4 terms 5 months each
1904 (Jun): Langworthy's ASC advertises reopening on Sept 6, 1904 with curriculum of 2 years: 4 terms of 5 months each (Zarbuck, 1988c)
PSC goes to 9 months
Curriculum at Palmer school lengthened to 9 months for $500; shorter courses are also available: "six months, $400; three months, $300; one month, $200, ten days, $100" (p. 5)


Oakley Smith creates Naprapathy
1905 (Nov 11): Oakley Smith discovers “ligatite” at 11:45PM;

founds naprapathy (Zarbuck, 1997) pg26

Oakley Smith opens Chicago College of Naprapathy
1905: Oakley Smith founds Chicago College of Naprapathy (Zarbuck, 1987)pg15
Willard Carver wants DD to add suggestive therapy to curriculum
1905 (Feb 15): Willard Carver, LLB recommends DD include suggestive therapeutics in curriculum (Zarbuck, 1988d); letter this date from Carver to D.D. Palmer reproduced in [JNCA

1958 (Oct); 28(10): 9-10, 52, 54]:

Langworthy attempts MN law to exempt PSC students
The father of chiropractic directed much animosity toward Langworthy and his competing institution. When Langworthy collaborated with Daniel Reisland, DC, of Duluth to establish licensing legislation for chiropractors in Minnesota, the Palmers visited the governor to urge his veto of the statute, which would have permitted licensure of Langworthy's graduates, but not the alumni of the Palmer School (Gibbons, 1993). The pages of The Chiropractor, published by the Palmer School, filled with invectives against Old Dad Chiro's former pupil.
DD goes to MN Gov to urge Veto of Chiro license bill
1905: DD visits Gov. of Minnesota to urge veto of chiro license bill (Gibbons, 1993; Gielow, 1981, p. 100)
DD does not support/unable to testfy in mixer Dr Whipple in practicing osteopathy without a license
1905 (Oct): The Chiropractor [1(11)] includes:
-“Chiropractic Versus Osteopathy” (pp. 21-3): On Oct. 11th I was called to La Crosse, Wis., to testify in behalf of G.W. Johnson, a “Chiro” who had been arrested for practicing Osteopathy without a license. J.L. Hively, D.O., of Elkhart, Ind., accompanied me. He graduated at the Kirksville School five years ago. His attention had been directed towards this science by E.E. Schwartz, D.O., of Coldwater, Mich. who cured Dr. Hively’s wife of puerperal fever after taking a short course in Chiropractic at this school, when given up by three Osteopaths and four M.D.’s. He recognizes that there is a vast difference between Chiropractic and Osteopathy. Mixers are a Disgrace. We arrived at their office at 8 a.m. A large window displayed the sign of “Johnson and Whipple, Chiropractics.” The stairway made the same announcement. They occupied the half of a small receptionroom, and a small one for their adjusting and treating-room. I say treating-room, for shortly after our entrance an old man came out, whose left arm they had been treating with a battery. They had pg26

DD's current wife dies of morphine overdose


DD Convicted and goes to jail for practicing med without a license
DD Signs school over to BJ's wife Mabel
pg 29
BJ denies DD entry to PSC
1906 (Apr?): BJ denies DD entry to the Palmer School (Gielow,
1981, p. 115) pg 29

DD backs John Howard for National School in Davenport
John Howard has experience with other drugless methods, AP Davis and Langworthy mentors
John Howard joins and backs UCA, mentions medical trust laws and lenient scope of UCA
-"Our Alma Mater: Her Mission, Accomplishments, Our Duties Towards Her" by JFA Howard, notes formation of the UCA, notes graduation date of August 17, 1906 (pp. 18-20): will be necessary to organize and band ourselves together in order that we shall become strong as a body of practitioners. It is in this way only that we can raise the dignity of our profession. In this manner alone will we be able to protect ourselves against the great opposition that we shall be forced to meet and overcome. The great medical trust will see to it that we do not have smooth sailing. We will have to watch closely the laws that they have been able to clothe themselves with, and learn the lesson that they have learned and do likewise. We have greater truths than they. We must see that they do not stifle our growth and progress. In unity only can we do it. The association now organized should be nourished by each and every one of the students of The P.S.C. Its motives are correct; its by-laws and scope so lenient and broad that we cannot afford to be non-members as long as we have the science of Chiropractic at heart. It assures justice and equity to all. It rests with each member to know just how far he can go in using any adjunct or aids should he think or desire to do so, which will depend entirely on the laws governing the practice of healing in his or her state. In conclusion, I will add, as “self-preservation is the first law of nature” we are complying with this law when we help to support our Alma Mater in upholding and maintaining the pure principles of our profession. We need and must have the strength of union...We must to a man be united. Disorganized we shall fail... “Brothers all.” “United we stand, divided we fall.”
-letter from John F.A. Howard mentions prior experience with various drugless methods, influence of A.P. Davis and S.M. Langworthy (p. 23)
DD goes to OK becomes grocer
DD opens chiro school in his home in OK - offers classes to osteopaths
Carver and Denny open chiro school in Oklahoma City
BJ refers to PSC as Fountainhead and Parent school
BJ bashes mixer Langworthy
1906 (Aug/Sept); The Chiropractor [2(9-10)]; BJ repeatedly refers to PSC as the “parent school”; includes:
-BJ notes of Langworthy’s journal (p. 4):
Backbone was published one year before The Chiropractor started its searchlight. That magazine offered dozens of combinations, fat cures, flowers, etc., etc., to increase its circulation. The Chiropractor has given good, common sense Chiropractic knowledge, and the truth - result - it still lives. Where, oh where, is Backbone? Sixteen months since its last issue. The neatest compliment paid The P.S.C. the last year was two recent calls from Dr. Banner Howard, who anticipates a future position in Dr. L.’s twenty-months’ school, providing they can get students to teach. His purpose was to see by what means this school was a success. Imitation is the greatest flattery. The P.S.C. will not object, provided credit is given where it is due...
The P.S.C. has had fifty-six students so far this year. We are modestly proud of that record. How many have you had, Dr. Langworthy? We are interested inknowing whether prospective students want specific, pure and unadulterated Chiropractic at “CHIROPRACTIC’S FOUNTAIN-HEAD” or mixed Chiro-Osteonapravito at the American School. Do not straws show which way the wind blows? We are not backed by any association, either. WHY? gp31
-mention of E.J. Whipple, reprinted from July, 1906 issue of
ACA and Langworthy?
-Edward D. Schoffman, D.C.’s letter to B.J. from Platteville WI suggests protective services of Langworthy’s ACA (p. 18): B.J. Palmer, D.C. Platteville, Wis., April 4, 1906
Dear Sir:- I did join Langworthy’s Graft Association, for I believe that’s just what it is. I don’t intend to let Langworthy lead me around by the nose. When he tries to, I will drop him. I signed it because of the protection to members... pg 29
UCA created
1906 UCA created after DD convicted to protect chiros.[2]pg1-2


Shegetaro Morikubo trial UCA
1907: trial of Shegetaro Morikubo DC in LaCrosse WI (Rehm, 1986); BJ notes in Conflicts clarify (Palmer, 1951, p. 94): Chronology of Diagnosis in Chiropractic Keating "We are always mindful of those early days when UCA...used various expedients to defeat medical court prosecutions. We legally squirmed this way and that, here and there. We did not diagnose, treat, or cure disease. We analyzed, adjusted cause, and Innate in patient cured. All were professional matters of fact in science, therefore justifiable in legal use to defeat medical trials and convictions" BJ Palmer
1907 Shegatoro Morikua defended with neural v circulatory distinction wins practicing osteopathy without a license suit sets theoretical precedent
There were political reasons which may have encouraged the elder Palmer to narrow his theory and practice to subluxation only. Members of the osteopathic community had been haranguing Palmer, labeling him a thief who had appropriated portions of Still’s osteopathic concepts and repackaged them as chiropractic. Now DD and his followers would leave to the osteopaths the “rule of the artery,” and concern themselves exclusively with the presumed supremacy of the nervous system in dis-ease. This revision was legally reinforced in a courtroom in LaCrosse, Wisconsin in 1907 when the first acquittal of a chiropractor tried for unlicensed practice of osteopathy was based on the neural vs. circulatory distinction. Shegatoro Morikubo, D.C.’s legal defense (Rehm, 1986) set a theoretical precedent with the power to keep chiropractors out of jail. pg4
DD turns down Carver/Denny to open Palmer Gregory in Ok City
DD leaves Palmer Gregory n 9 weeks
1907: DD forms the Palmer/Gregory school in Oklahoma City instead of teaching at Carver/Denny (Gielow, 1981, p. 118)
1907?: Palmer and Gregory break up after 3 months and one week (Gielow, 1981, p. 118); DD refers to a mere 9 weeks of association (Palmer, 1909a, p. 62):
If Dr. D.D. Palmer's connection with the Gregory School as a teacher for nine weeks is of such importance to justify the continuance of advertising 'Palmer-Gregory Chiropractic College,' how much more is it worth to you as a student to be under the personal instruction of D.D. Palmer for nine months? During that nine weeks much of my Chiropractic teaching was sidetracked, owing to the teaching of medical ideas which were not Chiropractic.
1907: DD forms the Palmer/Gregory school in Oklahoma City instead of teaching at Carver/Denny (Gielow, 1981, p. 118)
1907?: Palmer and Gregory break up after 3 months and one week (Gielow, 1981, p. 118); DD refers to a mere 9 weeks of association (Palmer, 1909a, p. 62):
If Dr. D.D. Palmer's connection with the Gregory School as a teacher for nine weeks is of such importance to justify the continuance of advertising 'Palmer-Gregory Chiropractic College,' how much more is it worth to you as a student to be under the personal instruction of D.D. Palmer for nine months? During that nine weeks much of my Chiropractic teaching was sidetracked, owing to the teaching of medical ideas which were not Chiropractic. pg35


Calif Medical law allows few DC's certifications if Naturopathic Ass members
1908: Turner (1931, p. 122) suggests: ...there were probably less than ten chiropractors in the state. Exponents of various healing arts, including some of these chiropractors, organized the Naturopathic Association of California, and in 1909 sought legislation to effect the establishment of a licensing board. An amendment to the medical law, having approval of the state medical authorities, was passed, by which anyone showing a certificate of membership in the association might receive the seal of the medical board, and this constituted a license. Educational and professional qualifications were not investigated. Two years later, this absurd law was repealed, but in the meantime, along with many indiscriminate drugless practitioners a number of chiropractors had gained credentials. The latter eventually became at odds with the majority of chiropractors, who under agreements of organization refused to acknowledge medical authority.[9]pg4
DD in Portland Oregon, opens DD Palmer College of Chiropractic
The D.D. Palmer (Portland) College of Chiropractic opened Monday, November 9, 1908. Simply stated, my research indicates that D.D. was not in Portland in 1903, but in Santa Barbara, California, then on to Davenport, and then Chicago, and then back to Davenport. No documents have been located that place D.D. in Portland until November, 1908.


DD repudiates pinched nerve theory, vertebra cannot subluxate-only facets and they open bigger - stretch or slack nerves
D.D. Palmer’s Final Theory of Chiropractic Old Dad Chiro’s thoughts about the nature of dis-ease continued to unfold following his ouster from the Palmer School in 1906, and in ways that are largely forgotten among chiropractors today. In 1909 and beyond he repudiated his earlier idea that vertebral subluxation involved the pinching of nerves in the intervertebral spaces (Palmer, 1910, 1914). Instead, he claimed, the misalignment of joint surfaces anywhere in the body produced nerve-impingement, thereby altering the tension of the affected nerve and changing its vibratory frequency. Palmer held to a vibrational theory of impulse transmission, a notion that was one of several explanations of nervous system function offered by physiologists of that time. Subluxation of joints and the altered neural tension it produced was thought to affect the tone (health) of the end-organs served by the nerves. “Nerves too tense or too slack,” suggested the father of chiropractic, was the cause of all disease. Palmer now saw the human skeletal frame as a regulator of neural tension throughout the body (Gaucher-Peslherbe, 1994). Tense, taut nerves brought too many vibrational signals to end-organs, causing inflammation. Nerves that were slackened by joint misalignment brought too few impulses to the tissues of the body, and thereby caused cold, hard tumors. Ninety-five percent of all dis-ease was attributed to subluxation in the spinal column, but Palmer suggested that an additional 5% was due to subluxations elsewhere in the skeletal frame, especially the joints of the feet. There were no nerves passing through the joints of the feet, he noted, and yet subluxated joints still produced dis-ease, such as corns and bunions (Palmer, 1910). He believed this point reinforced his contention that nerve impingement rather than pinching was the causal factor in the subluxation complex. pg4


Albert Abrams Spondylotherapy condemned
1910: Turner (1931, p. 295) writes: The publication of Dr. Albert Abrams' Spondylotherapy in 1910 brought the condemnation of the American Medical Association This book advanced the theory that the organs of the body were governed by nerve centers in the spinal cord and could be made to dilate or contract by stimulating the nerve centers through the manipulation of the vertebrae. Dr. Abrams was vice-president of the California State Medical Society, president of Emanuel Polyclinic, president of the San Francisco Medical-Chirurgical Society, professor of pathology at Cooper Medical College and professor at Leland Stanford University. He was graduated as a doctor of medicine at University of Heidelberg before he had reached the age of twenty. He studied in Berlin, Vienna, Paris and London, and for many years was regarded as one of the foremost minds in his profession.[10]pg7

Universal Chiropractic College formed
1910 (April): Dye (1939, p. 224) writes:
....One of the ostensible reasons for the founding of the Universal Chiropractic college that I distinctly recall, being on the scene at the time, in April, 1910, was that a more exhaustive study be made of Diagnosis in conjunction with the study of Symptomatology and Pathology. There also came a competition among the existing schools to incorporate these additional courses or subjects, or to have a more exhaustive course in the subjects then prevailing, so they could be in a position in their advertising of holding themselves out to prospective students as having the most superior course of all... pg45


DD in Santa Barbara? writes religion defense?

P.W. Johnson, D.C.; Yours of April 26th at hand. It contains an interesting and financial question, one which I think Old Dad hold the key of. Stop right now and read two sections in this enclosed circular, on pages 2 and 8 marked, and see if you cannot grasp the way out, that which I see that we are coming to. I want you to study those two items marked. The same ideas are in my book, although not put out quite so plain as found in these two sections. I occupy in chiropractic a similar position as did Mrs. Eddy in Christian Science. Mrs. Eddy claimed to receive her ideas from the other world and so do I. She founded theron a religion, so may I. I am THE ONLY ONE IN CHIROPRACTIC WHO CAN DO SO. Ye, Old Dad always has something new to give to his followers. I have much new written for another edition, when this one is sold. It is STRANGE TO ME WHY EVERY CHIROPRACTOR DOES NOT WANT A COPY OF MY BOOK. You write as tho you did not know of my change of location. I lived in this city nine years ago and have always had a hankering for its climate, fruits and flowers. I can edit, publish and place my book on the market as well here as elsewhere. I have not been teaching or practicing since leaving Portland, but have today placed an add in the city paper, of which I am sending you a copy, and will instruct by book or in person as the way opens. I have been and continue to watch your rights with "The American Octopus". I want you to STUDY the religious move. California has an organization with Miss Michelson as our attorney. Please drop me a few lines as soon as your trial is over, so that I may know how matters proceed. You ask, what I think will be the final outcome of our law getting. It will be that we will have to build a boat similar to Christian Science and hoist a religious flag. I have received chiropractic from the other world, similar as did Mrs. Eddy. No other one has lad claim to that, NOT EVEN B.J. Exemption clauses instead of chiro laws by all means, and LET THAT EXEMPTION BE THE RIGHT TO PRACTICE OUR RELIGION. But we must have a religious head, one who is the founder, as did Christ, Mohamed, Jo. Smith, Mrs. Eddy, Martin Luther and other who have founded religions. I am the fountain head. I am the founder of chiropractic in its science, in its art, in its philosophy and in its religious phase. Now, if chiropractors desire to claim me as their head, their leader, the way is clear. My writings have been gradually steering in that direction until now it is time to assume that we have the same right to as has Christian Scientists. Oregon is free to Chiropractors. California gives Chiropractors only one chance, that of practicing our religion. The protective policy of the U.C.A. is O.K., but that of religion is far better. The latter can only be assumed by having a leader, a head, a person who has received chiropractic as a science, as an art, as a philosophy and as a religion. Do you catch on? The policy of the U.C.A. is the best that B.J. can be at the head of, BUT THE RELIGIOUS MOVE IS FAR BETTER, but we must incorporate under the man who received the principles of chiropractic from the other world, who wrote the book of all chiropractic books, who today has much new matter, valuable, which is not contained in that book. If you will watch my book closely as you read, you will find it has a religion contained in it, although I do not so name it. If either of the Davenport schools would take advantage of practicing our religion founded by D.D. Palmer, it will make the way of chiropractic as easy as it was for the S.C.'s. I have given you some special hints on the question which is uppermost in your mind, will you please give it consideration -- never mind if it is new. Truly, (Signed) D.D. Palmer. pg 46

TJ Ratledge starts straight school in Calif

1911 (July 12): JH Lelande, County Clerk of Los Angeles, issues copies of Articles of Incorporation of the Ratledge System of Chiropractic Schools; signed by WC Watson, Deputy Clerk (Ratledge papers-SFCR Archives); TF Ratledge opens his fourth chiro school in LA; "Upon looking over the situation here in California, where at that time chiropractic was only available through the 'bootleg' channel and had received some very bad and recent publicity, all of which was medically inspired propaganda, I decided that where chiropractic was not, there I should be, so, I decided to open a school in California and establish chiropractic in California. That was in 1911, March. In September that year I opened the Los Angeles branch of the Ratledge System of Chiropractic Schools which I conducted continuously until Dr. Cleveland of Kansas City, Mo. bought me out in 1951." (1955 letter from TF Ratledge to RR Robbins; SFCR Archives)...[12]pg7

ACA members Cale and Richardson from Calif Ch Coll(CCC)

1911 (Oct 1): The American Drugless Healer (1[2]: 26), published by the American Chiropractic Association (headquartered in Oklahoma City, C. Sterling Cooley DC, Vice-President) includes for the first time in its "Directory of Chiropractors": "Chas. A. Cale, D.C., 1012 Pico St., Los Angeles, Calif." and "A.W. Richardson, 11434 South Olive St., Los Angeles, Calif." (no degree or title given for Richardson); also included in the directory are "A.A. Gregory, M.D., D.C. at 521.5 N. Broadway, Oklahoma City, Okla.", Joe Shelby Riley, D.O., D.C., at 521.5 N. Broadway, Oklahoma City, L.E. Fuller, D.O., D.C. at 511- 013 Meridian Life Bldg., Indianapolis, "G.H. Patchen, M.D., D.C., 147 W. 23rd St., New York, N.Y."; and "Cooley & Cooley, Enid, Okla." [3](p. 7)


ICA from UCC and upset with BJ Palmer

The question of legislation for Chiropractic is today the paramount issue, but the American Medical Trust is not our worst enemy in our fight for laws. The worst enemy is the faker in the Chiropractic school business, and the prince of all of them is B.J. Palmer. There is little doubt but what when you go before the legislature with a prayer for laws you will be met by your enemy with the advertising matter of the "Fountain Head". This same individual has done more to degrade the profession and Chiropractic than all other agents combined. So far as we know the International Chiropractic Association is the only association in existence that has stood uncompromisingly for legislation for Chiropractic. It is well officered, not run in the interests of any school or individual and has a large membership, and we believe that it is today in the best position to lend yeoman service to the Science of Chiropractic than any other association, and regret exceedingly that instead of organizing other association the champion of legislation for Chiropractic did not join forced with it instead of dividing the members of the profession. However, every honest endeavor along this line has our best wishes so we sincerely hope that in your endeavor for laws you will be successful. Thanking you, we are Very truly yours, U.C.C. -- The School of Quality


Calif SB430 law dies

1913 (May 14): Fountain Head News (FHN) (2[19]) reports: -item on chiropractic bill in state house (p. 9): CALIFORNIA LEGISLATION We have just learned that Senate Bill 430 of California died a natural death by a dose of anti-toxin given it in the Senate to the tune of 38 against to 14 for. More than 2.5 against to 1 for. This bill was the call for a straight and separate Chiropractic board of examiners. As there are several 'Chiropractic bills' pending, we cannot say that this state is lost. They might pass favorably on some other. More news follows as we get it. -item on medical legislation (p. 11): The following is a newspaper squib from the West. It again sounds the key-note:- With a warning to his professional brethren to avoid the temptation to tinker with the state laws regarding their own field, Dr. OD Hamlin of Oakland, (Cali) President of the State Medical Society, formally opened the forty-third annual session. 'A peculiar condition now exists. There is an antagonistic condition of unrest. Warring fanatics are trying to bring the medical profession into disrepute. Thirty bills are now before the legislature regarding the profession, and all of them, with the exception of a few proposed by the physicians, put a peg into the medical standard. Protecting measures SHOULD NOT come from members of the medical profession, BUT FROM THE PEOPLE WHOSE SERVICES WE STAND. When we before legislature, asking for laws, we ARE SIMPLY GETTING IN OUR OWN WAY. The public must make its own police protection against quacks and charlatans.[4]pg9

Ratledge talks to Governor opposed to medical board rule

1913 (May 29): TF Ratledge makes an address "before Governor Johnson May 29, 1913, as follows: 'I don't believe and don't feel like these people (Medical Board) ought to be permitted to direct us, what we shall study and the way we shall study when we have principles of our own science which are absolutely and diametrically opposite those of medicine'" (according to CB Pinckham MD's letter to TF Ratledge on 8/19/15; Ratledge papers, SFCR Archives)[5]pg9

DD Dies in CA

at home in Los Angeles

AMA creates Propaganda Department

1913: AMA establishes a "Propaganda Department" to gather and disseminate information concerning health fraud and quackery


CCC offers six week course

1914 (June 15): at CCC "...a six weeks' summer course commencing June 15th, and closing July 24, 1914, consisted of twenty-three graduates in both Post Graduates' diplomas, the graduates in both classes consisting of Osteopaths, M.D.'s, trained nurses and Chiropractors, as well as new beginners" (CCC, 1917-18).[6]


Ernst DuVal of Canadian Ch Coll and BJ explain straight to Justice- not impressed

1915-1917: according to Sutherland (1985): ...Mr. Justice Hodgkins says: Dr. Ernst DuVal, representing the Canadian Chiropractic College in Hamilton, explained in his submissions that: Chiropractic is a unique science. It has nothing in common with any other method, class, school or cult, neither in its science, philosophy, art, doctrine or principle upon which it is based. Dr. DuVal further stated: Chiropractic does not claim to treat, cure or heal anything or anybody of ailments or diseases and further: Chiropractors have no earthly use for diagnosis, as such, for the practice of chiropractic is unlike the majority of the other healing professions, to whom diagnosis is a necessity... Dr. B.J. Palmer reinforced these views during his presentation at one of the Commission's sessions and is reported by Mr. Justice Hodgins to have said, in respect to bacteriology: The chiropractor did not believe in bacteria, and that bacteriology was the greatest of all gigantic farces ever invented for ignorance and incompetency, and as to analysis of blood and urine, he considered it of no value. After hearing the chiropractors' presentation and weighing all the evidence submitted to him, the Commissioner reported: Those who appeared before me saw no necessity for preparatory qualifications, ridiculed and repudiated diagnosis, bacteriology and chemistry; admitted that a chiropractor acts in all cases upon his cardinal principle, without examination. Mr. Justice Hodgins, in announcing his decision, stated that he could not accept: a system which denies the need of diagnosis, refers 95 per cent of disease to one and the same cause, and turns its back resolutely upon all modern scientific methods as being founded on nothing and unworthy even to be discussed...[8]pg2

Benedict Lust MD,ND opens Chiro dept in Naturo School

1915: Benedict Lust MD, ND establishes department of chiropractic at his naturopathic school in NYC; FW Collins takes correspondence course from PSC and organizes the New Jersey School of Chiropractic, later renamed the Mecca College of Chiropractic, associates with Francis W. Allen; notes also that the National School of Chiropractic discontinued its correspondence course in 1915 (Carver, unpublished, pp 190-).[7]

Ratledge asks Med Board requirements in CA, only CCC passed

1915 (Aug 17): TF Ratledge writes to Charles B. Pinckham MD, sec'y of the Board of Medical Examiners (BME); letterhead indicates RSCS schools in "Topeka, Kansas, Oakland and Los Angeles"; Ratledge writes a "follow-up" letter requesting the requirements a school must meet to be approved by the BME, and notes that "one school of a drugless character" has been approved [Richardson's CCC] (Ratledge papers, SFCR Archives) 1915 (Aug 19): Charles B Pinckham MD (now sec'y-treasurer of the CA BME, althoughugh letterhead says WW Vanderburgh DO is Treasurer) writes to TF Ratledge in response to inquiry of 8/17/15; notes Ratledge's "address you made before Governor Johnson May 29, 1913, as follows: "I don't believe and don't feel like these people (Medical Board) ought to be permitted to direct us, what we shall study and the way we shall study when we have principles of our own science which are absolutely and diametrically opposite those of medicine"; Pinkham also indicates that in June, 1915 the BME had "approved the California Chiropractic College for one thousand hours, such approval continuing until December 1st, 1915 and being contingent upon the proper conduct of the institution. After carefully examining and personally visiting each institution professing to teach a drugless system in this state, the Board determined that the California Chiropractic College was the only one which came anywhere near meeting the requirements of an institution professing to qualify applicants for examination for a drugless certificate under the exactions of the Medical Practice Act." (Ratledge papers, SFCR Archives)

Ratledge complains to WHJ about Richardson at CCC

1915 (Sept 9): TF Ratledge writes to someone with initials "WHJ" (first page of 3 missing) re: Richardson's CCC; TF notes of BME that: The Richardson school was only approved for 1000 hours, and for that only until Dec. 1st, 1915, and I have every reason to believe that it will not be continued over a longer period of time. Then, you can see that it is a scheme to get us under their thumb and then crush us out of existence. First they make a pretense to approve a Chiropractic school, althoughugh they say 'that it was far from deserving such approval' then they withdraw that approval after we have been all led up to the chopping block and politically decapitated... (Ratledge papers, SFCR Archives) -TF recommends the best protection against BME is to join the UCA, and that no entanglements with BME (such as Richardson's CCC's collaboration) -TF asks WHJ to say hello to Dr. Bullis [presumably of the Oakland Chiropractic College; see Autumn 1911 and 1915; see SRI, 1960, p. 215][8]13

Ratledge complains to Willard Carver about Richardson's plan for medical examination board for DC's

1915 (Oct 5): TF Ratledge writes to Willard Carver (Ratledge papers, SFCR Archives): One 'AW Richardson,' who is the chief of traitors to Chiropractic and the 'ward-heeler' for the Medics here and is one of Gregory's ardent followers....many of his statements have been found to be untrue. Another statement which I also think is false is that he is a graduate in Chiropractic from the same school from which you graduated and as I cannot remember the name of said school or who had charge of it, I cannot check it up in any way other than asking your assistance....he claims seven years practice as a Chiropractor, and in 1913 he claimed the same years, which if true then should be nine years now... He is now trying to get all the Chiropractors here to go before the Medical Board for examination under a bill which is somewhat of the same Character of the Ohio bill, and many of them are for it, and it is going to be a great injury to our contentions that they are incompetent to examine us and will make it appear that we are provided for in law. I, with a few of the tried and true are going to resist all such to the last and now anticipate enjoining the Board to prevent them giving the examination and harass them as much as possible and all the information I can get relative to the fraud of this fellow will help to show that the Medical men have combined with the incompetent crooks in our profession to get the advantage of us and destroy chiropractic in this State.][9]13


Ratlegde writes BJ from Jail
Ratledge can't compete with Cale and Richardson cheap and shorter schools
Richardson in jail for perjury

1916 (June 23): TF Ratledge DC writes to BJ Palmer from Los Angeles County Jail (Ratledge papers-SFCR): ....the laws of California being such that it has not been at all attractive to persons who otherwise would have entered the school, and they when they DID get interested through our school enough to take it up in spite of the law they would be led, for the most part, into taking up a course in either Richardson's or Cale's school because of the short time or the very much less amount of tuition required before getting a 'Chiropractic' diploma, and the fact that I would not discontinue our school because I did not want it to be said that these other schools were representative Chiropractic schools in California.... The California 'Chiropractic' College with the support and approval of the State Medical Board is gone, Richardson, it's President and 'friend of the Medical Board' is under arrest at Sacramento, arrested BY the Medical Board on a charge of perjury and all of his followers floundering upon the rocks of disappointment and disgraceful failure; Cale's school IS and that is all, it being completely discredited while we are just the same as when we started except that the people now know where Chiropractic is represented in California. We have only six or seven students, but, they are made out of the kind of material that stands for what we demand.... -[above would seem to explain what was going on while Charles and Linnie Cale were taking coursework at LACO]

"Thank goodness, whoever, wherever you find the spurious, you'll also find the real. And wherever you find the real, you'll find them fighting for the good straight stuff. "The P.S.C. CHIROPRACTORS of San Francisco lost no time in making a statement, over their signatures, as follows: - "PRACTITIONER FLAYED BY CHIROPRACTORS ""Grossly inaccurate inferences are sure to be drawn" from the suit of Miss Mae Chesterly against Dr. George Richardson, a CHIROPRACTOR, according to a communication received by "The Examiner" and signed by several CHIROPRACTORS. Miss Chesterly accused Dr. Richardson with striking her with a mallet during the course of a CHIROPRACTIC treatment. "The signers of the communication, Doctors Ray S. LaBarre, Marena G. LaBarre, F.J. Freenor, Simon Mueller and George A. Bradley, declare they have no knowledge of the facts involved in Miss Chesterly charges, but in defense of the CHIROPRACTIC school add: - "No mallet or other instrument of any kind or character is ever used as a part of CHIROPRACTIC technique. Only the hands are used in giving a CHIROPRACTIC adjustment and they Joseph C. Keating, Jr., Ph.D. Chronology of the LACC are not employed to strike, massage, stretch, twist or otherwise injure the patient." - San Francisco Examiner, Sept. 29, 918.[10]18


Califirnia DC's vote to go to Jail rather than pay fines

1917: in California: "The Alameda County Chiropractors' Association, organized in 1917 by Dr. James Compton, adopted a constitution by which its members were required to go to jail rather than pay a fine. The association was advised by Tom Morris, chief counsel of the Universal Chiropractors' Association, and former lieutenant governor of Wisconsin, that it was illegal to maintain a constitutional decree against paying a fine, but the officers of the Alameda association would not revise the ruling. This organization became the hotbed of agitation..." (Turner, 1931, p. 126)

International Assoc of Chiro Schools (IACS) formed to reconcile education around PCS

1917 (Aug): "the International Association of Chiropractic Schools and Colleges was organized at Davenport, Iowa. It was an attempt to reconcile the educational policies of all schools of recognized standing, presumably in accordance with the regime of the "Fountain Head", the Palmer School of Chiropractic. A close affiliation, however, proved difficult to bring about, althoughugh some advance was made towards unifying educational methods in several important schools." (Turner, 1931, pp. 168, 288)pg

Associated Colleges and Schools of Chirorpactic (ACSC) formed

1917 (Nov 3): FHN [7(8); A.C. 23] notes: -formation of Associated Colleges and Schools of Chiropractic (ACSC), which include: (p 2) -NJ College of Chiropractic amalgamated with he Mecca College of Chiropractic -New England College of Chiropractic amalgamated with the Washington School of Chiropractic [JS Riley] -St Paul College of Chiropractic -Palmer-Gregory College of Chiropractic -Empire College of Chiropractic -New York School of chiropractic -Davenport School of Chiropractic

BJ notes ACSC falsely list UCC and Carver as members

-BJ notes that ACSC has been falsely listing the UCC and the Carver College among their membership; quotes Francis W. Allen DC of the Mecca College, who says an association of schools was first proposed but rejected by BJ in 1914; Allen compares BJ to the German Kaiser -correspondence between Ruland W Lee DC and Edward W Collins of Mecca Chiropractic College notes course in naturopathy at Mecca CC (p 2) pg5



Cale notes BJ supports Calif Chiropractic Bill

-Charles A Cale's letter (Cale, 1919) re: efforts for state licensure is published by FHN; Cale notes that on 10/5/1919 at Mission Inn Hotel in Riverside CA BJ promised not to oppose the current initiative campaign to enact a chiro law; re: BJ and the bill Cale writes (p. 4): ...His position as president of the "Fountain Head" School of Chiropractic and as secretary of the Universal Chiropractors' Association makes him the recognized leader of the chiropractic profession the world over. Any movement that has his opposition might just as well be abandoned, on account of his weighty influence. -Charles A. Cale notes BJ's comment that "no one can work with TF Ratledge" and suggests (p. 5): ...I hope no one will ever ask me again if Dr. Ratledge and I have gotten together.

Cale notes that Ratledge not cooperating with Calif bill

There are five Chiropractic school presidents in California and all of them but Dr. Ratledge are working harmoniously together for the Chiropractic Petition. Since four out of five agree upon the Bill, and since "BJ" says he will not oppose the Bill, can any reasonable person see any cause for discouragement in our fight for the adoption of our bill.... "BJ" Knows If our Chiropractic Bill were a vicious one, does anyone suppose for one minute that "BJ" would not oppose it? HIS LIFE FOR TWENTY YEARS HAS BEEN ONE CONSTANT BATTLE AGAINST THINGS WHICH WOULD INJURE CHIROPRACTIC. He certainly would fight our bill if it was very detrimental to Chiropractic.

BJ writes Ratledge a has been - supporting mixer Cale of LACC

-BJ writes (p. 6): ....Ratledge is a straight, specific, pure and unadulterated Chiropractor. He's for the same as I am. He practically insults every Chiropractor he wants support of and from. He can't concede any strength or viewpoint of value in any other person's ideas OF HOW THINGS OUGHT TO BE DONE. They could be agreed on principle and then he would insult them on policy.... Another way of expressing the local conditions, between the two local men, is to say that Ratledge has ideals but no ability or ambition or accomplishments. Dr. Cale, on the reverse, hasn't the Chiropractic ideals vision, but he has the ability, ambition and accomplishment. Given the two I would rather have Dr Cale's contrast, for the ability to accomplish WILL come the ideals, for men can't work to the end of nothing all the time. In the given years that each of these men have had to show what they were or could do, or even tried to do, it appears to me now that Dr. Cale has tried to do much, much of which I don't agree with, and Dr. Ratledge has argued and talked much, with all of which I agree, but he hasn't accomplished a thing but gotten practically all the chiropractors disgusted, dissatisfied and discouraged with him and his tactics. As is see it, Dr. Ratledge is being regarded as a has-been, a oncerunner, a cold-potato. Having failed, they are now looking to Cale to see if he can pony up to the scratch, make a home-run. Whether he will, with his mixing of Chiropractic, remains to be seen. But he can't do any worse than Ratledge, so let's take a fling and give him the opportunity. -BJ reports (p. 6): Last night, at the Gamut Club, Dr. Cale had his eighth birthday anniversary celebration. The Los Angeles College of Chiropractic was just eight years old, and it was celebrated by speaking, music; a play and dancing followed.[11]20


Tennessee Supreme court Judge rules Chiro's don't have to examined by medical board

1920: Judge Landsden of the Supreme Court of Tennessee rules (Smallie, 1990): The Court thinks that Chiropractors cannot be classed along with charlatans and fakirs. This science is well developed and recognized in many jurisdictions and many believe in its efficacy......The requirement that they study and be examined on subjects in no way pertaining to their occupation is an arbitrary and unreasonable attempt to restrict their liberties and the liberty of the people who wish to patronize them.[13]22



UCA decides on UCA Model Bill defined as science of palpating and adjusting human spinal column only..
BJ urges rejection of mixer DC's and mixer Organizations
BJ gives states time to Clean House or UCA will set up associations to compete with them in their states

1922 (Oct 6): "Report of Conference of Presidents of State Associations, held on B.J.'s Porch" (date illegible); meeting called to order by George Newsalt DC, president of UCA; reports from various states; a "UCA Model Bill" for creation of state boards and DC licensing is appended, which includes: "Chiropractic is defined to be the science or palpating and adjusting the articulations of the human spinal column by hand only..."; BJ urges rejection of mixer DCs and mixer DC organizations; policy enacted: The UCA has withdrawn all affiliations with State Associations that allow mixers in their ranks. If State Associations will Clean House the UCA will cooperate with them, and if the State Associations refuse to clean then the UCA will voluntarily come into the respective state and organize a branch in opposition to the State Association, requiring affidavits from members they are straight chiropractors, also the complete endorsement of UCA Principles. The National Board of Examiners countenance no mixers... Nebraska, Minnesota and New York as well as other States are due for UCA Cleaning... The UCA is willing to allow the different organizations as well as Chiropractors a reasonable amount of time to Clean House... (Cleveland papers, CCC/KC); see also MSCA, June 1922 7

ACA created in response to UCA

1922 ACA created in response to harsh treatment by UCA and BJ.[12]pg4

22 states have chiro boards
15000 prosecutions against DC's in 30 years

1922 (Oct): Turner (1931, pp. 292-3) writes: By 1922 eleven supreme courts had upheld the legality of chiropractic boards....By October, 1922, twenty-two states had established chiropractic examining boards and their legality had been upheld by eleven supreme courts. Other supreme court decisions had declared that the practice of chiropractic was not the practice of medicine....More than 15,000 prosecutions against chiropractors are said to have occurred in the United States during the first thirty years of chiropractic. pg8



NCM officially unveiled at PSC Lyceum

1924 (Aug): Neurocalometer (NCM) officially unveiled at PSC lyceum (Keating, 1991) pg14

NCM Lease plan to 5000 qualified DC's

3. ...the LEASE PLAN. This plan restricts the leases exclusively to chiropractors. It limits the number of sales to our profession. It limits it to but a limited percentage of our profession, for all are not competent or qualified. Out of 20,000 gross, we can discount 10,000 as being unworthy; then, out of the remaining 10,000, 5,000 can save themselves yet by studying Chiropractic at some competent and qualified school. Out of the remaining 5,000, probably 3,000 can now afford to buy at reasonable terms, beginning tomorrow, at eight o'clock in Room 12. This will cull about 5,000 good out of 20,000, and lease a substantial number of competent and qualified chiropractors to construct a professional house that would be worth living in (applause), where we think and talk the same language and feel acquainted on the same subject. (Palmer, 1924, p. 10-11) pg6

NCM restrictions to protect competent DC's

a) the non-restrictive (LEASE) plan (Palmer, 1924, p. 11): ....a non-restrictive letting down all bars, letting everybody do anything they pleased, thus using it as a method of further ruining chiropractors... b) ....the restrictive plan, keeping up the personal, educational , professional, financial as well as legislative bars high, permitting certain things to be done only in certain ways, thus protecting Chiropractic against chiropractors as well as protecting competent chiropractors against incompetent chiropractors.... (Palmer, 1924, p. pg6

BJ will no longer train MD's, DO's postgrad

-BJ reiterates announcement that PSC will no longer offer postgraduate courses to non-PSC alumni; MDs and DOs must take the full 3-year course (FHN, 5/3/24; 19-20:1 pg6

NCM only to Palmer grads

-non-Palmer graduates will not have access to the NCM: "Future graduates of the PSC will have the privilege of Neurocalometer service in their practice" (FHN, 9/6/24; 1:16) pg6

NCM scientific financial solution

The Neurocalometer is providential. It is a scientific financial solution to all our school and field problems. (Palmer, 1924, p. 6) pg6

NCM speech fueled PSC contoversy

BJ's 1924 lyceum speech was like gasoline thrown on this fire smoldering in the profession. Adding fuel to the controversy was the fact that the Palmer School of Chiropractic, which BJ owned, had purchased patents on the NCM. The NCM was available only to graduates of Palmer (in a day when there were many chiropractic schools engaged in fierce competition), and only at a price of $2,200 for a lease. A cash down payment of $1,000 was required, with the balance payable at ten dollars per month for the next ten years. Leasees were also required to charge patients ten dollars per NCM reading - conservatively equivalent to charging sixty dollars for that service today (Crisp, 1984). -Betty Finger (319-326-9729), 21 years employed at NCM Instrument Repair at PCC; telephone interview with J. Keating on 3/19/91; phone is answered "NCM", Ms. Finger notes that new contracts on NCM ceased to be issued "about a year ago", her department continues to service NCMs for field doctors; she will send catalog of products and/or a picture of an NCM pg9

BJ's right poem

BJ's Right Again!* I "cussed" BJ with all my might I hated all his ways; I could not see the light he held But now - I sing his praise. Like others, I admit I thought These efforts for his gain But now I see he's protected me When I would him have slain The new Neurocalometer - This contract I must sign - This "technique" and this "red tape" stuff - The whole "mess" made me whine! I "ripped him up the back" a few - Would have "cussed" him was he here; But now, I sing a different tune, My madness turns to fear. I see a different light just now - 'Twould all have meant my ruin; It makes me take another vow To cut out so much stewin'. The things we worry most about - These things which kill our song - They never happen half the time, So this time we were wrong! The M.D.'s and the Osteopaths And every Tom and Dick Would have owned a "Neurocal," Had not BJ been slick. Now, as it is, he protects us And all our true profession, He thinks ten miles ahead of us While we trail the procession. He lifts our science from the mire - To it a new life gives. Now every tortured sufferer May look to it and live. Thus dawns an era new and bright And Chiropractic's fame Proclaims a new hope for the sick, To honor BJ's name. No more groping in the dark, A new light now appears To guide the chiropractor's hand And stay the patient's fears. So we can say to those who sick And suffering roam the earth: An exact science now we have - 'Twas BJ gave it birth. You will agree now (when you see 'Twas not all done for "self"), Instead of kicking B.J.P. We all should kick ourself. B.K. Vance, D.C., Ph.C. South Bend, Ind., 7-14-'24 pg13


UCA accepts BJ resignation

before leaving you in an official capacity, as your secretary, I want each and every one of you staunch and loyal members of The UCA to know that I am just as much, if not more interested, in you and your interests, as I have ever been. I am just as vitally interested in the great principles, for which I have fought for twenty years, that vitally affect your welfare in the field, such as STRAIGHT CHIROPRACTIC, STRAIGHT LEGISLATION, and CLEAN CHIROPRACTIC BOARDS. I will not be able to help you as an officer in the future. But, in any way that you feel you need me, and I can assist you as a private individual, I shall be glad to cooperate to the fullest of my ability. pg 2

Tom Morris to run UCA

1925: according to BJ (Palmer, 1931a, p. 5): In 1924, BJ made a trip around the world. While the cat was away, the mice got their heads together into a conspiracy. They resented that firm and deliberate hand which had held them to objectives for 20 years; they rebelled against him who would not let them put their hands into its exchequer and take its monies for personal use; they schemed against him who took power from the Board of Directors who wanted to hold semi-annual beer and booze parties at its expense, running into thousands of dollars. The objectives of the UCA did not include loot for its elected officers. When BJ returned, the skids were greased. BJ was to go. Rather than be forced out, BJ took the hemlock and resigned. Tom Morris was competent legally to run The UCA, but he was not competent Chiropractically. Tom Morris assumed the legal reins and tried to carry both sides on. Plots were laid against him, for he, too, had spent 20 years in building up its objectives into a successful organization for the right of the sick to get well with Chiropractic. He defeated them fairly well, but they eventually got him.... pg 19

BJ says NCM will keep medical classes out of PSC

1925 (July 13): BJ writes to Sylva L. Ashworth DC, says NCM will help to eliminate medical subjects in chiro schools; pg1

First Basic Science law passed

1925: first basic science law is passed in Connecticut; at Cleveland College Homecoming in 1949 John J. Nugent DC is misquoted; following quote includes handwritten note from Carl Jr. indicating it was sent to BJ Palmer at Vinton Logan's request (Cleveland papers, CCC/KC): Quoting---Dr. John Nugent at Cleveland Chiropractic College "Homecoming" --- 1949 I'm not for Basic Science Boards. I've been accused in this State of being for Basic Science Boards, and my words have been distorted -- twisted -- taken out of context. When you don't answer a man you ballywack him. You lie about it -- yhou haven't got the real answer. The real answer was -- I made that statement before Congress, I said that I had written the Basic Science act in Connecticut. And I did. I wrote it. I wrote it on my own little typewriter. Why? Because there had been a terrific scandal in the eclectic profession and a man had been killed on an operating table and the whole state of Conn. was in furor, and nineteen ?prefectors? in the State demanded some sort of qualifications for all practitioners, and Liberty magazine and Colliers were writing articles about Conn. and when I saw the powers that be they said, "Now look Doctor, we're supposed to be political leaders in this state but we can't stem this tide. There's got to be some sort of device. The State Chambe of Commerce, Kiwanis Club and all the Civic Clubs were up in arms about it and we were going to get a Basic Science Law. So I said to Mr. Roarback, who was the political boss of the State who was a Chiropractic patient -- I said to him, "Well, if we have to have the damn thing then let's have a fair one." He said, "Can you write such a bill," and I said "yes." And I wrote that bill. I put it in my pocket and that's the Bill that came out. Yes I wrote thathing -- and I wish that I'd had an opportunity to write every other one of the Basic Science bills too. pg 21


BJ tries to get re-elected to UCA but fails
BJ starts and becomes pres of Chiropractic Health Bureau (CHB)


CS Cleveland works on Model Bill in other states

1927 (Mar 3): Carl S. Cleveland DC writes to BJ, notes his "local" perspective on efforts to eliminate physio-therapy from chiropractic profession; notes local attitude of DCs is that battles among schools retards passage of chiro legislation; believes state boards (including "Ellsworth of Oregon or Washington", Anna Foy of KS, mother-in-law Dr. Ashworth of NE) will pass broad scope laws "use the whip" unless straight schools unite under CHB or PSC; believes if this unification of straight schools took place and "Model Bill" with standard curriculum were adopted, the osteopaths and medical boards would be less contentious towards chiropractic; notes (Cleveland papers, CCC/KC): Gruenewald of the Seattle College, and Harring of the Missouri saw the necessity of such an alliance a few months ago....I believe that Palmer, Texas, Eastern, Missouri, Lincoln, Ross, Universal, Seattle, Doughty-Marsh, Standard, Ratledge and this school could agree. Carver and the Colvin and other little hole in the wall schools that follow him are hard to handle and could not agree on definition, etc. pg 5

-Lyndon E. Lee DC, VP of NYSCS, authors "Force the Issue", thanks ACA for help in dealing with organized medicine, disparages the "rule or ruin policy of the Palmer-UCA combination" (pp. 11-12) pg 5

Attempt to merge ACA, UCA and CHB associations fails

1927 (Sept 1): Bulletin of the ACA [4(5)] notes: -amalgamation meeting at the ACA convention included representatives from ACA and CHB, but not UCA; BJ Palmer spoke for CHB (p. 2): During his remarks Dr. Palmer had forcefully intimated that there were leaders who were publicly working for amalgamation and privately opposed to it....The questions was then put as to whether or not he would name that individual. He replied that he would and named Dr. FR Margetts, President of the ACA. When questioned as to proof of his assertion he replied that Dr. Margetts had made such a remark in his private office in the presence of Dr. Frank Elliott and himself and that Dr. Margetts had also made such a remark, privately, to Attorney Fred Hartwell of the CHB, at a Wisconsin Convention. No other proof was offered.... Dr. Margetts denied the charges made by Dr. Palmer, and classed the entire affair as nothing more than a dastardly frame-up on the part of the two individuals named, and as an effort on their part to discredit him before the Chiropractic profession. --but see Margetts, 8/1/29 pg 5


ACA calls for BJ to step aside

1928 (Jan): Bulletin of the ACA [5(1)] notes: -Craig M. Kightlinger DC, PhC, President of New York-Eastern Chiropractic Institute (recently amalgamated), authors "Natural Law" (pp. 9-10): Chiropractic was discovered by one man and developed by another, and we must give full credit to him who discovered it and still greater credit to him who has developed it. We cannot forget the many trying times that the developer of our science went through to keep it alive and to bring it to a point where it could stand on its feet. To him we owe more than we can ever repay and to him is due the fact that the Science of Chiropractic is where it is today. He took us through the Dark Ages of the development, but now the time has come when once again the Natural Law must be taken into account and the leader of old must either sit at the council table and consult with the minds of Chiropractic Health Bureau/ICA Notes Keating 6 the many or take his place on the side lines and let the march of Progress pass. We need him but we need as much and more the ideas that result from the clear thinking of the interested members of our profession. We must have the cool logic of the best minds and the greatest brains of the entire profession. The dictates of the one, no matter how sincere and honest they may be, can serve no more. No one mind can see and appreciate the wants and needs of the Chiropractic profession. We may need a general to guide and direct us but we need a staff to do the planning. Nature is not a pleasing master and Natural Law is many times cruel, but it is the result of truth and it will prevail. It is not the nicest spectacle to see the old leader of the herd beaten and his leadership taken by a younger and stronger opponent and it is not the most pleasant thought to know that, sooner or later, the old leader must place his mantle on the shoulders of the best minds of the many. It is a fact and facts must be faced.... There is nothing the matter with Chiropractic. There is a great deal the matter with Chiropractors. They have never been used to thinking for themselves. The time has arrived when they must think for themselves and must lead themselves, or they will go the way of all who oppose the progress of Natural Law and be forced into oblivion... pg6

no PSC grads pass basic science boards Missouri CC students all pass

1928 (May 14): BJ writes to Cleveland College at 1417 Linwood Blvd to inqure re: topic of a BJ letter of 5/14/26 directed to the Missouri Chiro College (MCC)...MCC had apparently advertised that none of their students had been refused licensure, even in those states with Basic Science laws; BJ notes that no PSC grad has yet passed a Basic Science board (Cleveland papers, CCC/KC) pg6

ICC formed

1928 (Sept 3-5): International Chiropractic Congress (ICC) is organized at meeting in Chicago; the ICC "is represented in 34 states" (Turner, 1931, pp. 169-70, 288); ICC "organized, to consist of the presidents of such colleges, the State Examining Board representatives, and also representatives of State Associations" (Metz, 1965, pp. 54-5) pg6

Fred Hartwell atty for CHB dies
Tom Morris of UCA dies


Stock market crash causes some straight schools to turn mixer or close


ACA_UCA merge

1930 (Nov): UCA and ACA "merged to form the National Chiropractic Association" (Metz, 1965, p. 55); Sylva L. Ashworth DC is charter member of NCA (Rehm, 1980); AB Cochrane DC, president of ACA and Lee W. Edwards MD, DC, president of the UCA "stepped aside in order that Lillard Marshall might be the first president of the merged, unified national association, the NCA" (Edwards, 1938); see also Turner (1931, p. 288) pg 8




Second NBCE

1933 (Oct): The Chiropractic Journal (NCA) [1(10)] notes: -JE Slocum DC is appointed "Chairman of Public Relations", previously served as chair of the "Central Committee of Five of the Professional Code Conference at Denver," president of ICC and "President of the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners" (p. 7); this is the second NBCE, the first formed by BJ circa 1922 pg11

BJ and 6 MD's testify against mixer DC's in CA

1933 (Dec): The Chiropractic Journal (NCA) [1(12)] publishes: -C.O. Hunt, D.C., secretary of the California BCE, authors “At the crossroads – six medicos and B.J. testify against chiropractors!” (pp. 5, 23); discusses Steele case: pg12

Carver testimony fights BJ and Chiropractic League in trial - DD adjusted all joints not just spine

Dr. Carver further testified that he had seen the founder of Chiropractic, Dr. D.D. Palmer, adjust hip joints, shoulder joints, Chiropractic Health Bureau/ICA Notes Keating 14 wrists, elbows, ankles, legs, feet, and toes, all for the purpose of removing impingement or interference from nerves and all as being Chiropractic. pg14 Judge James, who


John Howard Memoir suggests DD disguised chiropractic tenents until legal

1934: Howard’s memoirs (quoted in Beideman, 1983) states: It has always been a sore in my eye to see how some who profess to be disciples of D.D. Palmer have tried and still insist on narrowing the science down to a simple technic. In the early days it was necessary to protect the “child” (as D.D. was wont to refer to his Chiropractic) by evasive terminology in order to avoid the chill and ice of the law and “analysis” was used for diagnosis, “adjustment” was employed for treatment, “pressure on the nerve” was used for reflex stimulation or inhibition, etc. These terms were garments to protect the child until legal clothing could be secured. pg54

CA case limits DC's to no modalities in practice
BJ offers to HELP CA DC's be better Chiropractors

1934 (Mar): The Chiropractic Journal (NCA) [3(3)] notes: -“Chiropractic fratricide is indicated in California modality ruling” (pp. 9, 38); discusses recent court decision in Steele case limiting DCs from using modalities; includes letter from B.J. Palmer, D.C.: PERSONAL FROM B.J. To All California Chiropractors: You are face to face with a victory on one side of a question; and with a defeat on the other. It has been a policy of my life to first, Fight for CHIROPRACTIC in its purity for posterity; second, Help any, every and all CHIROPRACTORS to be BETTER chiropractors. In pursuance with that policy, knowing the problem you face, let me suggest a sane, sensible program. 1st. Save your money. Quit wasting it on foolish professional and legally questionable methods. Save it and spend it judiciously on securing a consistent education IN CHIROPRACTIC and spend the difference IN ADVERTISING CHIROPRACTIC and build an honorable business that will net you a profit. In that spirit of helping I come to KEEP you in Chiropractic; to HELP you stay in. Judge James has handed down his decision. In helping secure this decision, I offer no apologies for fighting TO PRESERVE CHIROPRACTIC. I stand ready to HELP YOU become better chiropractors, with the same sincerity that I helped last October to destroy modalities AS Chiropractic in California. The Superior Court has said (and the Supreme Court will confirm) that you can’t practice modalities under a CHIROPRACTIC license. That means that modalities go out and Chiropractic must come in. Many of you need know more CHIROPRACTIC to make it work and win a business for you. If there IS sufficient interest, now that we face the cross-roads, I will come to Los Angeles between march 18th and 25th and put on a week’s three sessions daily course IN CHIROPRACTIC. The course which will be ALL “PALMER,” the kind the law approves and the courts sustain. After this week’s work you will be educationally equipped to meet your conscience, face Chiropractic honorably, and be in tune with law, not as a criminal fighting against it as many of you have been in the past – and might prefer to be in the future. Chiropractic Health Bureau/ICA Notes Keating 15 The cost of this course will be $25 – 3 sessions a day. Covering all fundamental subjects. A certificate will be issued for attendance. I shall send forth only this ONE letter. Tear off the coupon below and mail it at ONCE. As ever, B.J. pg14

BJ helps AMA defeat DC's use of modalities in IOWA

1934 (June): CO Watkins' Montana Chirolite reports on injunction in Iowa court against Charles J. Boston DC's use of physiotherapy, mechanical methods and dietary recommendations; Watkins suggests that the case was instigated (p. 4): the PSC, HIO and AMA" to uphold the "so-called Model Chiropractic Law which was advocated by Palmer a few years ago....The decision which was handed down against Dr. Boston shows the effects of the argument of the counsel for the state which represented the side of Palmer and the AMA. After such an overwhelming defeat tendered the Chiropractors of Iowa on the recent basic science legislation, an Iowa court could feel free to hand down a decision very favorable to the AMA; which it did... pg14

JAMA report on cults

1934 (July): CO Watkins' Montana Chirolite reports that: -notes JAMA's (5/5/34) report that "The cults scored heavily against public health interests in 1933. Independent Chiropractic examining and licensing boards were created for the first time in Colorado and Michigan, and Chiropractic acts in Montana, New Mexico, N. Carolina and North Dakota were amended so as to enlarge the scope of Chiropractic practice" (p. 2) -neither NCA nor CHB protested Morris Fishbein MD's (JAMA Editor) radio broadcast "Character of a Quack" to the Federal Radio Commission (p. 3) ..It was attempted to determine from whom the prosecution attorneys were to obtain their fee, but they refused to answer the question. However, it is rumored that the American Medical Association will pay them $5,000.00 if they win the decision. It is also reported that the CHB has set aside $1,500.00 of its funds for the purpose of prosecuting this case and carrying it to the Supreme Court, if necessary. What is that old saying, “Birds of a feather…”? It seems very applicable in this case.pg15


BJ and AMA defeat healing arts amendment in Oregon

1935 (Feb): The Chiropractic Journal (NCA) [4(2)] includes: -W.A. Budden, D.C., N.D., president of Western States College, authors “Medical propaganda aided by B.J. Palmer, defeats healing arts amendment” (pp. 9-10, 38) pg16

The committee went to work. Preliminary filings were made, and the Attorney-General issued a ballot title. This stated exactly what that document aimed at. The opening clauses of the amendment were that it was “to prevent monopoly and to encourage competition in the healing arts.” Attorney General Van Winkle’s title merely reiterated this.

Medical propaganda to defeat the antimonopoly amendment

The medics were immediately aroused. They appealed to the Supreme Court and prayed for relief. Arguments were forthwith heard, and it was at once apparent that there were breakers ahead. This was demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt when that body struck out Van Winkle’s title and substituted one of its own. This substitution was a veritable stumbling block to the amendment. Indeed, so far did the court go that the title submitted was predicated upon a different section of the code than the one dealt with the amendment. This error was not corrected after its discover on the day the decision was rendered. Competent lawyers are of the opinion that the title drafted by the court did not even accurately describe the matter to be voted upon. In any event, when the voting time came, many of the friends of the measure did not vote at all because of the confusion set up in their minds by the action of the court. Realizing that they had received a set-back, the committee nevertheless went to work with the circulation of petitions to put the matter upon the ballot. The response was instant and encouraging, and in less than two months 60,000 signatures were secured. The amendment was on the ballot with a bang. In fact, in spite of the disabilities of the initiative law, the committee filed 47,000 odd signatures with the secretary of state. This was actually the largest petition ever received by that official since the law was enacted some twenty years ago. There was rejoicing; all the more so when it was realized that only some 4,000 of these signatures were obtained by professional circulators; all the rest were garnered by friends and patients. The fight to pass the proposal now began in earnest. The first publicity matter to make a stir was the voters’ pamphlet. This document is printed by the state and contains arguments written by proponents and opponents of the various measures, provided they can pay the one hundred dollars per page which the state charges to cover the cost of printing. The argument of the drugless committee was to the point and was confined entirely to a discussion of the amendment. The medical outburst covering three pages (they seem to have had a great deal of money) was composed of false statements and unjustified inferences. Lest we be accused of distorting the record, let us quote from the original document: “If this measure should carry, every accredited Oregon hospital would immediately lose its national rating as an approved or standardized hospital.” “If this proposal is adopted it would be impossible for such projects (the Bonneville dam) to be carried on within our state. The probable result would be that thousands of our people would be thrown out of employment or forced to leave Oregon for other states, none of which suffer from such vicious legislation.” “If this bill passes, Oregon will soon be known throughout the country as a state unsafe for tourist travel.” It is perhaps needless to state that the hospitals were specially exempted from the amendment and, in any case, protected by the right of contract, that tourist travel could not under the most extreme interpretation of the measure have been affected, and that the statement that this amendment would stop the building of the great federal dam at Bonneville or increase unemployment is incredibly stupid. Such, however, was the nature of the propaganda issued, alas, over the signatures of ministers of the gospel and attorneys. It was indeed an astonishing campaign. The writer has in the course of a long life seen some tough political encounters, but never before has he witnessed prostitution of mentality, debauching of the avenues of information, wholesale falsification, slander, libel, and wanton calumny so extensively and so callously used. No doubt, there were medical men and decent citizens who felt utterly ashamed as they were compelled to contemplate the barrage of twaddle and verbal garbage which was let loose. Certainly, many of the better practitioners of medicine voted for the amendment, as did a large number of druggists and dentists; some medical men of note in the state came out openly for it. The monopoly propaganda machine said amongst other things: “Students of drugless schools go to school only six months and then graduate to become dope peddlers. If this amendment passes,

The closing days of the campaign were perhaps the most painful, not because of the attitude of the medics, but because they brought to light what appeared to be clear evidence that an erstwhile leader of the Chiropractic world had gone over to the enemy irrevocably – that he had, in fact, burned his boats. Two days before the election the state newspapers carried large advertisements advising the people that “America’s Leading Chiropractor, B.J. Palmer – agrees with the entire medical profession of Oregon” in urging people to vote against the amendment and for the strengthening of medical monopoly. It was a difficult situation. A few days before the medical machine had filed a new suit in the circuit court at Salem with the avowed intention of asking the Supreme Court to strike the amendment from the ballot. Between these cross fires and the lack of money, the committee put forth its utmost endeavor to hold the line. To denounce the gentleman from Davenport for what he so evidently is would cost much more money than was available, seeing that all funds had been depleted to fight the legal battle then developing.

Council of State Examining Boards formed with new school standards

Dr. BJ Palmer was also contacted with similar intent. However, the astute qualities usually ascribed to him were evidently lacking upon this occasion as he was unwilling to even listen 'to anything that smacked of NCA' - in spite of repeated declarations that the Council of State Examining Boards on the contrary was separate and distinct from any and all other organizations.... The revised draft was completed and forwarded to members of the joint committee. Other incorporations and modifications were listed. However, it was not possible to incorporate all suggestions. It is interesting to note that the schools' opinions were still sharply defined and divergent - while the State Boards were unanimously in favor of higher standards. A synopsis of the Joint Committee's findings is as follows: 1. - It will be necessary to rate schools teaching the orthodox methods and those teaching the more liberal methods in separate categories as regards list of class hours and equipment. 2. - All authorities agree, two thousand sixty-minute hours is the maximum that can be taught in three years of six months. This basis, althoughugh somewhat less intent, is used in compiling the scale and setting it as regards to curriculum. 3. - It must be comparable with other professions' standards. 4. - The Schools being commercial in character (with very few exceptions) it is necessary to give due consideration to financial stability of the Institutions. 5. - In accordance with the tendency of all state laws, wherever amended, the trend being upward from the three years of six months level, it became obvious the scale minimum for grade A probationary rating must be twenty-four months for the fundamental course and four years of eight months for the liberal course. 6. - In order that all schools may have an opportunity to meet the final requirements of fundamental (three years of nine months) and the liberal (four years of nine), one calendar year - until Jan 1, 1937, is given for probationary ratings of all Chiropractic Schools and colleges. 7. - The scale must be so constructed as to include from the minimum of set requirements to the maximum as taught by an Chiropractic school of today. The Council of State Boards will not enter into a discussion of the definition of chiropractic. Suffice it to say that each type of thought is recognized and given opportunities to develop. We, therefore, have divided the schools into two groups - the Basic or Fundamental Schools (teaching only Chiropractic) and the Liberal or Physical Therapy Schools (teaching Chiropractic and Physical Therapy)...





formation of Allied Chiropractic Educational Institutions for straights

1939 (Aug 19): letter to BJ Palmer from TF Ratledge (Ratledge papers, SFCR): Dear B.J.: I attended the meeting called by Carver in Dallas on July 22, 1939, for the purpose of organizing those schools which teach only chiropractic. After several sessions we organized an adoption of motion by Dr. Jacobs of the Eastern College "that we do now organize ourselfes into the ALLIED CHIROPRACTIC EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS with the idea and purpose of preserving chiropractic in its purity for posterity and that we are reseolved to cooperate with all chiropractic organizations with similar purposes." It becomes my duty as Secretary to invite all chiropractic schools who are willing to promulgate chiropractic alone into the association, and as you were not represented at the time of organizing, you are hereby invited and urged to join us and help us to better serve the great cause for which we have, too much, separately strived in the past. It is my personal opinion that whenever and wherever we find a group of men or institutions committing themselves to the task which is also ours, that we may do well to lend them encouragement by our cooperation. The membership, to date, includes Carver, Cleveland, Eastern, O'Neil, Ratledge and Texas, all of whom were personally represented at the time of the organization and the Columbia Institute, N.Y., New York School, Standard School of N.Y., and the University of Chiropractic, Seattle. The issues transcend personalities and though any of us might not have the kindliest feeling toward, or interest in, some of the individuals or institutions so associated, I still believe that it is a step in the right direction and will bear fruit sufficient to compensate the effort which we may severally put into it. Chiropractic Health Bureau/ICA Notes Keating 19 Personally, B.J. I would enjoy your association in the work of such an organization and I hope that you do join. May I have your reply as soon as you have had time to give the matter careful consideration. Dr. Weiser of Texas College was elected President of ACEI and Dr. Jacobs of the Eastern Vice President. With kindest regards and good wishes, I am, Yours very truly...























BJ death




Homola's book "Bonesetting, Chiropractic, and Cultism"

Bonesetting, Chiropractic, and Cultism

A critical study of chiropractic (its history and methods) in its relationship with past amd present-day medical science, along with analyses, conclusions, and speculation regarding its status and its future.

© 1963, Samuel Homola, D.C.

Long since out of print, but available on line for free here.













Consumer Report knocks chiropractic

Botta J. "Chiropractors: Healers or quacks?" Consumer Reports

Reporter changes his mind after Katz interview

Some links mentioning the report:




New Zealand Report

Katz testifies concerning 1975 Consumer Report 7. The Commission has another reason for its reservation on the weight to be placed on the Consumers Union report. That is because of evidence which was given before us by Dr Murray S. Katz, a Canadian medical practitioner who was brought to New Zealand for the purpose.

8. Dr Katz told us that he had played some part in influencing the emphasis of the CU report. In the course of orally presenting his submissions he volunteered this comment:

The Consumers Union started off very much in favor of chiropractic. After hearing what the AMA had to say about chiropractic, they were even more in favor of chiropractic, considering they had a vested interest, but it was only after Joe Butta came to Montreal and discussed this issue over many hours and many telephone calls [with me] that the Consumers Union in the United States completely reversed their stand on the chiropractic issue and went exactly the other way."

9. Under cross-examination Dr Katz enlarged on this:

"I can only relate secondhanded that when Joseph Butta began to look into the whole issue of chiropractic he was initially favorably disposed. Stephen Barrett told Joseph Butta that he should speak with me in Canada, and Joseph Butta refused to call me up or come to see me. As it turned out later, the reason for this was that Joe Butta -this is secondhand, it is pure hearsay, but it is what happened - felt that I was just another doctor, that I would just be saying what the American Medical Association said, and I would not be helping. However, Joe Butta did finally contact me, discuss the issue with me on the phone for 15-20 minutes, and felt impressed enough to fly down from Montreal, to spend some eight hours of discussions with me, and I think the turning point was my presenting him with the Pediatric hospital Report, which he had not seen before, and subsequently we were in constant contact, and he has credited me with telling me so, and with other people who have spoken to him, such as Don McKenzie, with having completely reversed his position on chiropractic".

From chiropractic article:

A New Zealand Commission report in 1979 supported the safety of chiropractic; the report said "We are satisfied that chiropractic treatment in New Zealand is remarkably safe." (Report of the Commission of Inquiry Into Chiropractic 1979:p 77). According to the researchers, "By the end of the inquiry we found ourselves irresistibly and with complete unanimity drawn to the conclusion that modern chiropractic is a soundly based and valuable branch of the health care in a specialized area." However, the judge in the Wilk v. American Medical Association case; described this report as "unsatisfactory", and a review of the report by the United States Congress' Office of Technology Assessment found 'serious problems' in its treatment of safety and efficacy issues. [1]







NACM formed











May 1994 NACM seeks to create Orthopractic field

Orhtopracractic starts as a medical model for spinal manipulation under Dr. Katz in Canada. NACM gets request to form USA orthopractics.

June 1994 issue of Consumer Reports suggests orthopractics rather than chiropractic

Katz interviewed again for Consumer Reports

July 1994 Dr. Katz interview

"DC": Were you aware that Dr. Slaughter in his own curriculum vitae, page 2, states that he acted as a consultant for "Mr. Doug Carlson, JD, counsel for the American Medical Association, regarding the 'Wilk' trial"; "Mr. James Cerney, JD, counsel for the American Radiology Society, regarding the 'Wilk' trial"; "Dr. William Jarvis, PhD, president of the National Counsel Against Health Fraud, and Dr. John Renner, MD, chief medical advisor to the president of the Senate Investigative Committee on Health Fraud"?

Katz admits? to agreeing to attack chiropractic philosophy.

Nov 1994 NACM pulls out of Orthopractic



McKenzie PT pulls out of Orthopractic



April 1996 Lana Dale Lewis stroke 6 days after SMT then dies 2 weeks later
May 1996 NACM Founder Writes His "Last Newsletter"[15] Slauhter moves on

He's still the president of NACM. (2006) -- Fyslee 06:34, 16 September 2006 (UTC)



Laurie Jean Mathiason dies of stroke after Spinal manipuation



Laurie Mathiasons mother's letter to the editor

Orthopractic - sounds like Katz words?

January 2000 Lana Dale Lewis family files 12 mil lawsuit

Katz encouraged them?

Katz not allowed at coroners inquest

CVA not result of VBA dissection

Consumer Reports

Also discusses the May 2000 issue



April 2002 Lana Dale Lewis Coroner inquest finds she died of natural causes
Nov 2002 DuVall's VA Report Shows NACM's True Colors[16]

There were several instances in DuVall's report in which he appeared to relish the possibility that the efforts of the Chiropractic Advisory Committee may not succeed as envisoned. DuVall's tone and language seem to suggest that he does not consider himself a member of the very profession of which he is so critical. If this is true, several questions come to mind: Why was DuVall selected as a member of the Chiropractic Advisory Committee? If he is not a doctor of chiropractic, what is he?