Cape Verde is a republic located on an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, consisting of ten islands and five islets approximately 620 kilometres off the west coast of Senegal. Previously uninhabited, it was colonised by the Portuguese in 1456, and became a major trading port due its location. It was granted independence in 1975. The archipelago is divided into windward (Barlovento) and leeward (Sotavento) islands, and are rugged and volcanic in origin, with one remaining active volcano located on Fogo. The largest island is Santiago, which also hosts the capital Praia. Estimated population of Cape Verde in 2013 is 499,000.